Jewish History Honors Mid Term
Terms in this set (85)
Why do we study history? (2)
So we never forget what was done, and so that we never repeat the past.
To move forward from the past.
Why are these responses wrong?
Neither are correct, we need to act upon history.
How is everything neutral?
In the hands of a murderer, a knife could be deadly. In the hands of a surgeon, an knife could save lives. Nothing is necessarily good or bad.
How did the Jewish nation survive throughout history?
We survived by sticking to our strong belief system, having so much history, and with our questioning. Are unique laws helped us survive.
Why is a nation's history essential to its survival?
It connects the nation to something. If a nation does not have history, it doesn't have anything to validate its legitimacy.
Which year did the Israelites settle in Canaan?
Who was the father of monotheism? What was the promise?
Abraham. He was promised that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars.
How does the bible describe the land of Canaan?
It is described as the land of milk and honey. The 12 spies saw the vegetation of Israel. Israel is extremely fetile and fruitful.
Define the term 2.5 tribes
Gad, Reuven, 1/2 Menashe, Gad went off separately to farm
What are three main themes discussed in the Torah?
Justice- equality and respect to everyone. The Jews formatted courts of law dealing with certain issues in fairness, no matter rich or poor.
Tzedaka- Righteousness is essential, not optional. We must give back to the community. In the Torah, we save a portion of harvest to leave for the less fortunate.
Honesty- Honesty is the best policy. In court, the judge must be an honest, fair person and cannot take bribes.
What are some of the gods that the Israelites' neighbors believed in? What is polytheism?
Sapesh (shemesh)- the sun god
Yaariah (yareach)- the moon god.
They believed in these gods to provide reasoning for themselves. The belief in multiple gods.
How does Christian classification of time differ from Judaism?
Christians use the term "BC" as before Christ. The Jews use "BCE" as before common era, and CE as common era.
Why was the land of Israel specifically organized?
Moshe and Hashem organized the placement of the land before entering Israel and Joshua instilled it. It was organized based of off population and occupation. For example, the farming tribes had more fertile land.
How were tribes led?
Tribes were governed by individual tribe leaders.
Who was Devorah?
She was a femal judge married to Barak (general of army). She went to war. She was the only woman known to do this and wrote a song criticizing the lack of union among the tribes.
What was the problem with the tribes? What was the attempt to fix it?
They were not unified. Israel wanted a king.
What restrictions were held to a king?
Kings were not allowed to have too much property, they were not allowed to have too many wives, and they were supposed to be humble.
Who was King Saul?
Saul was the first anointed king of Israel. That territory he controlled was rather small and lacked a palace and capital city. He was a great warrior, but unable to unite the Israelites. In the span of two years, he sinned twice and was asked to resign. He refused to acknowledge the fact that someone else could be king.
Who was King David?
King David was the second king of Israel. He defeated the Phillistines and Goliath. He united the Israelites and captured Jerusalem. He came from the tribe of Judah. He ruled the south for 7 years and expanded to the north for the next 33 years. He placed the arc in the mishkan. David moved it to Jerusalem, but could not build the temple. David was in love with Batsheba, who was married to Uria, a soldier. David put Uria in the front lines at war so he could be with Batsheba.
Who was King Solomon?
King Solomon was the child of David and Batsheba. He strengthened the kingdom and built walls around Jerusalem. In 950 BCE he built the first Temple. King Solomon had 700 wives, making peace with other nations. He built temples of his wives idols. He taxed citizens heavily and brought idolatry to Israel. G-d hated him and said that his kids will suffer and the temple will be destroyed in his children's lifetime.
How did the north and south of Israel split?
After the death of Solomon, Israel split into Judah of the south and Israel of the north. Without a central government and strong military, Israel would be conquered.
Who conquered Israel after Solomon died?
The Assyrians conquered Israel in 722 BCE. Through the exile, ten tribes were lost. In 597 BCE Nebuchadnezzar swept into Judah. In 586 BCE the temple and Jerusalem were burnt down.
Who was Elijah the prophet? Who was the king of his times? Who was his wife?
The king was Achav who was married to Jezebel. Jezebel made Israel idol worship. Elijah tried to prove their gods as false prophets. In turn, Achav attempted to kill Elijah. However, Elijah ascended straight to heaven on a flaming chariot. We believe that Elijah still lingers and will reappear when the mashaich is here. Elijah is reserved a seat at the brit milah and a wine glass at Pesach.
Who was Cyrus?
In 539 BCE the Babylonian empire fell to the Persians. The emperor, Cyrus wished to be favorable among the Jews. He permitted the Jews to return to Jerusalem. However, most Jews did not return to the holy land and were comfortable as they were.
How is Cyrus comparable to Acheshverosh from Purim?
He was kind to the Jews. (add more, inquire about previous tests)
Who was Nehemiah? What was his role?
Nehemiah was on the the Persian court and persuaded the Persian king to appoint him the governor of Judah. Nehemiah sent an army to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. He rebuilt the economy. He was Ezra's partner.
Who was Ezra? How many Jews did he bring back to Babylonia? What kind of society did he recreate?
Ezra was a religious leader. He led 1500 Jews back into Babylonia. He was the Moses of his time. He then gathered 40,000 Jews and brought them to Babylonia. In his new society, Ezra ensured that women dressed more modestly, he wrote halacha, he read the book of Devarim to everyone, every Monday/Thursday parsha was read to implement Torah knowledge, he made simcha torah and yearly cycles of Torah study.
What is the last book of the Tanach?
Ezra and Nehemiah.
What are the differences and similarites of the Bavel exile and today's diaspora?
In both exiles, Jews were comfortable with their current living situations, instead of returning to Israel. Adaptation and assimilation are prevalent.
What happened in 516 BCE?
The Second Temple was completed after seventy years of the first destruction.
Who was Alexander the Great? What were his feelings towards Israel?
Alexander the Great was mentored by the philosopher Aristotle. He was a great conqueror and strengthened the Greek Empire. He favored the Jews. He respected them because his mentor did. When he visited Israel, he was impressed.
Who are the three generals?
Ptolemy, Seleucid, and Lysemachus
What was the change in the Jewish community when Ptolemy ruled?
Ptolemy granted the Jews autonomy. Jews were allowed into Egypt for work. He tolerated the Jews and let them serve in the army. When political leaders were also religious leaders, there was trouble.
Define Septuagint. What were its pros and cons?
Septuagint is the Torah translated into Greek. Greek speaking persons and Jews could now follow along in the Torah. Other could educate themselves about Judaism. People can misinterpret the Torah. The translation devalues the Hebrew language.
What are some examples of Hellenistic influence?
Architecture, physical beauty, sports, government, etc.
Who took over Israel after Ptolemy? When?
The Seleucid kingdom ruled.
What are the two names of the priests in Israel? What were there different philosophies?
Onias III wanted to limit Hellenistic influence. Jasonh, his brother wanted Jerusalem to be very Greek in order to bring wealth and culture.
Who was Antiochus Epiphanes?
He rose to the Seleucid throne. He raised Jewish taxes. He enforced Hellenism on the Jews. He did not allow Jews to read Torah and made them eat pork.
What were the Jewish population's feelings towards Antiochus?
They hated him. He raised their taxes and did not let them have their Jewish identities.
Who was Menelaus? How did he become a priest?
He was a priest that bribed Antiochus. He believed in assimilation. He was not a real Kohen.
What was the Jews point of view on Menelaus?
Menelaus took his bribe money from the temple, the Jews couldn't bear him.
Why was the book of maccabeem not in the Torah?
Apocrypha is not in the Torah because it was after Ezra and Nehemiah, the last book.
What does maccabi stand for?
Mi kamocha ba'elim adonai
What does Channukah mean? Why do we celebrate?
Channukah means... The temple was purified and rededicated in the month of Kislev 164 BCE on the twenty fifth, the third anniversary of the when it was wrecked. Israel's small army defeated the major power. The macabees used guerrilla warfare to defeat the Greeks.
Why does Hannukah last eight days?
The oil lasted for eight days. It was styled after the 8 day autumn harvest festival of Sukkot, which they did not get to celebrate.
Who were the Hasmoneans?
The surviving son of Matitsyahu called Simon started a dynasty.
What happened in 331 BCE?
Alexander the great beat the Persians.
What happened in 141 BCE?
The Hasmonean dynasty begins.
What was Judah's nickname?
What caused the civil war?
The baseless hatred of the Jews.
What was the Hasmonean dynasty? How long did they rule? Why was it good/bad?
The Hasmonean dynasty ruled for 103 years. Simon was not super power driven. He created an alliance with the Romans to get rid of the Greeks. He converted people into Jews. It was the most accurate land like in the bible. There were high taxes and rebellion. However, the country was extremely stable.
Who was Alexander Yannai?
He was a king of Israel. People rebelled against him and he crucified the rebels. At a Sukkot ceremony, people threw etrogim at him and he died.
Who were the Pharisees?
They were the spiritual fathers of modern Judaism. They believed in oral law and the afterlife. They were blue collar citizens.
Who were the Sadducees?
They were elitists. They rejected oral law and afterlife and believed only in written torah. Many of them were friendly with Romans.
Who were the Essenes?
They lived in segregation. They led simple, monastic lives. They wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls.
What were the Dead Sea Scrolls?
They were manuscripts found at the eleven caves of Qumran that contained records and copies of Tanach. They were 900 scrolls. They were found in 1947 and written by the Essenes.
Who was King Herod? What were his accomplishments? What was bad/good about him?
King Herod was a Jewish convert. He rebuilt Jerusalem and embellished the temple. He built Masada. He was paranoid that people were out to get him and built fortresses. He was irrationally violent, but created architectural wonders.
Who was Hillel?
He was so poor and could not afford Torah lessons. He was the head of the Sanhedrin and started an education system that we follow today. We are in favor of his practices.
Who was Shammai?
Shammai was a part of the Sanhedrin. He always debated with Hillel. We will follow his way of law upon the mashiach's arrival.
What is an example of a debate between Hillel and Shammai?
On Hannukah, Hillel said that we should add a candle for each day. Shammai said we should take a candle away each day.
Who were the procurators?
They were Roman officials that were sent to oversee Judea.
Who were the Sicarri?
They were an extremist group of Pharisees. They were called the dagger men. They killed Romans and Sadducees. In some ways, they were very similar to the Zealots.
Who was Florus?
In 66 CE, he robbed the temple. Jews protested and then soldiers attacked.
Did Florus want war?
Yes, then he could take the riches of the temple because Jerusalem would be colonized.
Who was Joseph ben Matityahu?
He was a Judean general that was captured by the Romans.
Who was Josephus Flavius?
He was a historian. He was caught in the middle of two groups, the Jews and the Romans. He recorded many important books of history.
Who were the Zealots?
They were a group of rebels who hated the Romans. They were farmers who were expelled from their land and rebelled.
What did Zadok's followers do?
They created the Sicarri and from that created the Zealots.
Who was Vespasian?
He was the father of Titus.
Who was Titus?
He conquered Jerusalem and sent troops tor destroy the Temple in 70 CE.
What is Tisha B'Av?
The day the temple was destroyed. We commemorate it by fasting and reading the book of Aicha written by the prophet, Jeremiah.
What happened at Masada?
Sicarri committed a mass suicide when they were discovered by the Romans.
What is Kiddush hashem?
Kiddush hashem is sanctifying the name of G-d through suicide.
What is sinat hinam?
Who was Bar Kochba?
He was the head of the Jewish revolt that lasted three years. He was a descendant of the Davidic dynasty, people thought he was the messiah, Rabbi Akiva deemed him so. He held the last stand at a city next to Jerusalem called Beitar. He died in Beitar on the Ninth of Av.
Who was Yohanan ben Zakkai?
He was a rabbi who gave hope to the Jews after the destruction of the temple. He created an academy in Yavneh and a court system. He created alternative ways of worship.
Who was Rabbi Akiva?
He had 24,000 students and one of the greatest scholars. He developed the mishnah. He started studying Torah at age 40 and was extremely humble. He was found by the Romans and was tortured to death. While dying, he recited the shmah.
What was a new invention of this time?
Synagogues were developed as homes of worship. Education and social activities were offered.
Who was Babata?
Her documents were discovered including her ketubah.
What is a Beit Din?
A Jewish court.
Who was Hadrian?
He rebuilt Jerusalem as a Greek city and banned the Jews from entering. He forbade the Jews of Judea to practice Judaism. He changed Israel's name to Palestina. He tried to hunt down the rabbis.
What was the new name given to Judea?
What happened in 68 CE?
Yohanan ben Zakkai and others set up a beit din at Yavneh.
What happened in 132 CE?
Bar Kochba led a massive Jewish revolt.
Why was the pre-Civil war ear considered a time of the Messiah?
The time was so bad, that it was supposed to get better with the mashiach. Menachem was the spiritual leader of the Sicarri and believed to be the mashiach. He was assassinated by the Zealots.