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Physics midterm vocab
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (58)
Accuracy
a characteristic of a measured value that describes who well the results agree with the real value
Precision
a characteristic of a measured value describing the degree of exactness of a measurement
Significant Figures
all the valid digits in a measurement, indicates the measurement's precision
Physics
the study of matter and energy and their relationships
Independent Variable
The factor that is changed or manipulated during an experiment
Dependent Variable
the factor that depends on the independent variable
Linear relationship
(Directly Proportional)
a type of relationship that exists between two variables whose graphed data points lie on a straight line (as one variable increases, the other increases)
Inverse Relationship
(Indirectly Proportional)
a hyperbolic relationship that exists when one variable depends on the inverse of the other variable
Average Speed
how fast an object is moving; the absolute value of the slope of an object's position-time graph
Average Velocity
the change in position, divided by the time during which the change occurred; is the slope of an object's position vs time graph
Coordinate System
a system used to describe motion that gives the zero point location of the variable being studied and the direction in which the values of the variable increase
Displacement
a change in position having both magnitude and direction; is equal to the final position minus the initial position
Distance
A change in position having only magnitude
Instantaneous Velocity
a measure of motion that tells the speed and direction of an object at a specific instant in time
Magnitude
a measure of size
Motion Diagram
a series of images showing the position of a moving object taken at regular time intervals
Particle Model
a simplified version of a motion diagram in which the moving object is replaced by a series of single points.
Position-time graph
a graph that can be used to determine an object's velocity and position
Resultant
a vector that results from the sum of two other vectors
Scalar
quantities that are just numbers without any direction
Time interval
the difference between two times
Vector
quantities that have both magnitude and direction
Acceleration
the rate at which velocity of an object changes
Average Acceleration
the change in an object's velocity during a measureable time interval, divided by that specific time interval
Instantaneous Acceleration
the change in an object's velocity at a specific instant in time
Acceleration due to gravity
9.8 m/s2
Free Fall
the motion of a body when air resistance is negligible and the motion can be considered due to the force of gravity alone
Velocity-time graph
a graph that can be used to plot the velocity of an object versus time and to determine an object's acceleration
Force
a push or pull exerted on an object that causes a change in motion; has both direction and magnitude
Free-body diagram
a physical model that represents the forces acting on a system
Net Force
the vector sum of all the forces on an object
Newton's second law
States that the acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being accelerated (F=ma)
Newton's first law
States that an object at rest will stay at rest and a moving object will continue moving, if and only if the net force acting on that object is zero. (Law of inertia)
Inertia
the tendency of an object to resist changes to its motion
Equilibrium
Balanced forces that result in a zero net force
Apparent Weight
The force exerted on a scale by an object and other forces acting upon the object
Weightlessness
An object's apparent weight of zero that results when there are no contact forces pushing up on the object
Drag Force
the force exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid
Terminal Velocity
the constant velocity of an object that is reached when the drag force equals the force of gravity
Interaction Pair
A pair of forces that are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction
Newton's Third Law
States the force come in pairs and that the two forces in a pair act on different objects and are equal in strength and opposite in direction (Action-Reaction Law)
Tension Force
the specific name for the force exerted by a rope or a string
Normal Force
the perpendicular contact force exerted by a surface on another object
Applied Force
A force that is applied directly to an object by a person or another object
Spring Force
A type of restoring force that a spring exerts on an object
Frictional Force (Friction)
Force caused by two objects' surfaces in contact with one another
Coefficient of Friction
Describes how rough or smooth a surface is; it is used to find the magnitude of the friction force
Contact Force
A force that acts on an object by touching it directly
Field Force
A force that is exerted without any contact
Components
The two vectors that are at right angles to each other and add together to give the resultant
Vector Resolution
The process of determining the components of a vector
Vector Addition
Adding two or more vectors together
Momentum
Product of mass and velocity of a moving object
(mass in motion)
Impulse
A change in momentum
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Impulse is a change in momentum resulting from a Force applied to an object during a time interval
Inelastic Collision
A collision in which the colliding objects stick together, total momentum is conserved but Kinetic energy is not
Elastic Collision
a collision in which the objects colliding bounce off of each other and both total momentum and kinetic energy are conserved
Law of Conservation of Momentum
The total momentum before a collision is equal to the total momentum after a collision
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