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Psychology Practice Exam
Terms in this set (98)
What of the following is the best definition of psychology?
the study of mental processes and behavior
In correlational studies, it cannot be determined which variable is the cause and which is the effect. This is known as
the directionality problem
When a researcher manipulates a variable to see what effect the manipulation has on another variable, the research design is a(n)
A study randomly assigned 3rd grade children into either a small class or a large class. When tested, 3rd grade children in small classes scored better on all tests of academic performance than did the students in larger classes. What is the dependent variable?
In the experiment above, what is the independent variable?
3 critical questions
what am i being asked to believe or accept?
what evidence is provided to support the claim?
What are the most reasonable conclusions?
While picking blueberries, Tricia looks up to see a bear eating blueberries out of her pail nearby. Tricia immediately experiences increased heart rate, breathing, and sweating, due to the ________ nervous system. A feǁ minutes later, when the bear lumbers away, tricia's feelings of relief and decrease iin heart rate and breathing are due to the ________ nervous system.
The activation of heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and pupil dilation that Tricia experienced in the previous question is known as the _________________response to dangerous situations.
"fight or flight"
Information travels through the neuron in what order?
dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal buttons
The area of the cortex that distinguishes humans from other animals, and is responsible for higher functions, such as thinking, personality, emotion and memory, empathy, and decision making is:
Which of the following conditions is an effect of chronic smoking?
allows some individuals to be extremely capable of adapting to life changes by viewing events constructively
Kristine is experiencing some depression and memory problems. To reduce both of these, Kristine's doctor is most likely to recommend
Jamie needs to quit smoking. According to your textbook, which strategy seems to have been most effective for around 90 percent of people?
going "cold turkey"
Exercise increases the productivity and growth of
General adaptation syndrome (GAS) proposes three levels of stress resistance. What is the correct order of stages?
The major difference between emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping involves
whether one attempts to reduce the emotions associated with the stressor or solve the problem directly
Problem-focused coping involves
taking direct steps to confront a stressor
Type A characteristics, of competitiveness and hostility are predictors of heart disease.
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because the
person's body is asleep, but the person's brain is active
After Mork has gone through one full sleep cycle, his heart beats faster, his breathing grows fast and irregular, and his closed eyes begin to move back and forth. Mork is most likely experiencing
Linnea said that last night she had dreams about daily activities, such as what she was going to wear to school and what pen to bring to class. Based on the nature of the dreams, it is most likely that Linnea had the dream in ________ sleep.
Your roommate says that you seem to wake up dozens of times in the night, gasping for air, but are totally unaware of it. Based on this information, you may be experiencing
Occasionally, Jessie will fall asleep at inappropriate times, for example, in the middle of talking to a customer at work. Based on this information, Jessie might be experiencing
When a person experiences changes in memory, perception, or voluntary action as a result of suggestions made by another person, he or she is most likely experiencing
According to research, the most important factor in allowing a person to be successfully hypnotized is the
suggestibility of the individual being hypnotized
Meditation seems to affect cognitive processing in which of the following ways?
improving attentional processing, preserving brain function during aging, reducing sterss
To be considered a stimulant, a drug must ________ mental activity and ________ physical activity.
To be considered a depressant, a drug must ________ mental activity and ________ physical activity.
Nancy is under the influence of a drug. She feels energized and is also experiencing altered visual perception. Nancy most likely took the drug
When Terry stopped using a certain prescription drug, he became very anxious and had severe headaches. Terry's experience is most likely a result of
Research evidence shows that which of the following is a factor in the development of addiction?
attraction to novelty and risk taking
poor relationship with parents
inherited tendency to sensation seeking
Which of the following detects temperature and then sends information about temperature to the brain?
warm and cold receptors
The sense that allows you to determine the location of your body and limbs in space is called
When Margot was a child, her mother baked bread on Fridays. As an adult, whenever Margot smells bread baking she remembers her mother and feels happy. The mood and memories result from the processing of smell information in the
________ has the most direct route to the brain because it is the only sense that bypasses the ________
After repeated studying, Cressida is able to remember all of the state capitals. Now when she hears the word Michigan, she quickly thinks of the word Lansing. Cressida's learning is likely due to long-term potentiation, which
strengthens synaptic connections
Mason has spent many hours studying to learn the exact order of the first hundred digits of number pi, which has resulted in strengthened synaptic connections in his brain. Mason's ability to learn the numbers is most likely a result of
In Pavlov's research, dogs learned that the sound of a bell predicted the arrival of food, so the dogs salivated at the sound of the bell. In this research, classical conditioning occurred in part because the ________ elicited a(n) ________.
conditioned stimulus (bell); conditioned response (salivation)
Gwen's children really like to watch a comedy TV show that comes on at 7:00 pm. The children are not fond of clearing the dinner table and washing the dishes. How can Gwen use the Premack principle to get her children to clear the table and wash the dishes?
make watching the comedy TV show a reward for clearing the table and washing dishes
Joe studies diligently for his final exams for two weeks. His younger brother, Tommy, has watched him study consistently each night. Joe makes the school honor roll as a result of his hard work. Tommy learns the consequences of hard work through watching his brother. Tommy has learned through:
Players keep paying additional money at gambling casino slot machines that use a __________ schedule of reinforcement.
When a behavior is followed by either positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement, the behavior is likely to
integrates and stores information
holds and releases chemicals into the synaptic cleft
parts of the neuron that conducts the electrical impulse
fatty substance that causes the electrical impulses to be sent faster
receives chemical messages from the presynaptic (sending) neuron
space between two adjacent neurons into which neurotransmitters are released
Carly is depressed and her doctor has prescribed a medication (SSRI) to alleviate her symptoms. The medication will allow this neurotransmitter to remain longer in the synapse
individuals with alzheimer's disease have too little of the neurotransmitter
Andrew has problems controlling his movements and walking. This is caused by a decreasing amount of this neurotransmitter in his brain.
Example of perception
the food tastes like watermelon
example of sensation
molecules of food stimulate receptors on the person's tongue
example of transduction
cells in the person's taste buds send signals to the brain
physical stimulus of vision
traffic light changes
sense organ for vision
sensory receptors for vision in which transduction occurs
rods and cones, located in the retina
where is the action potential stimulated in regards to vision?
Vision: neural impulse first travels to where?
Vision: neural impulse travels next to where?
the visual cortex located in the occipital lobe
physical stimulus of hearing
tree falls in the forest (or bird sings)
sense organ for hearing
sensory receptor for hearing in which transduction occurs
hair cells which are located in the cochlea
where is the action potential stimulated in regards to hearing?
Hearing: neural impulse first travels to where?
Hearing: neural impulse travels next to where?
the auditory cortex, which is located in the temporal lobe
Andy is happy that his best friend is returning from studying abroad for the entire academic year. Hugh is interested in socializing and engaging in activities. Andy's behavior is energized, directed, or sustained, and he is demonstrating
Jerome's boat sank in cold water and his body temperature is dangerously low, so he starts swimming to raise his body temperature. According to motivational theory, Jerome's low temperature created a deficient state called a(n) ________, which in turn created a motivating state called a(n) ________ to increase his temperature.
Glenna is a consultant who is under intense pressure to meet a client deadline, has missed lunch and is working overtime. She is nearly finished with the client presentation, but suddenly stops writing and leaves her desk in order to take her salad out of the refrigerator in the break room. Which of the following theories best explains this sudden change in behavior?
Everyone in the history class is required to give a presentation. Which student should perform best?
Liz, who is slightly anxious
A.J. enjoys rock climbing and cave exploring, and often surfs in stormy weather, when the waves are especially high. A.J. could be characterized as:
a thrill-seeker, disinhibited, susceptible to boredom
According to optimal arousal theory, under what circumstances will an actress put on a good performance on the opening night of the play?
she is moderately nervous
Research has shown that social isolation increases the risk of illness by the same amount as smoking a pack of cigarettes a day. This finding supports the idea that the need for ________ is a fundamental adaptive motive.
Jack really wants to become a doctor. He continues working toward his goal, despite the fact that he has trouble with the course work and has difficulty getting admitted to college and paying for his education. Jack's willingness to keep working toward his goal, despite the difficult setbacks, is an indication he has:
Nell and Grace, 4-year-old twins, are shopping with their mother. She offers to buy them each a small cookie now or a large toy later if they are good during the shopping trip. Nell takes the cookie, but Grace waits for the toy. Based on this, who will be more successful in high school?
grace, because she can delay gratification
Psychologists use the term personality mainly to refer to characteristics and behaviors that
are relatively stable across time and circumstances
Our memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self are integrated to make up our
The cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, interpret, and use information about ourselves is called our
Carol's dad demands that she earn straight A+ grades so that she may be admitted to law school. When she receives a grade of B+ in one of her courses, her dad shows disapproval towards her and says that she will not amount to anything. According to humanistic approaches to personality, Carol's dad is creating
conditions of worth
According to the diathesis-stress model, mental disorders are caused by both ________ and stress.
a predisposition to mental illness
Germaine has a nervous personality. This semester, he is enrolled in 18 credit hours while also studying for his medical school exam. Although he never had them before, Germaine starts having panic attacks during exams. In this situation, the diathesis is ________, and the stressor is________.
his personality; the medical school exam
Jerry experiences nearly constant anxiety that is not associated with a specific thing. While he is at work he worries about his sons at school. When he is driving home, he is worried about his bills. Jerry is most likely to be diagnosed with
generalized anxiety disorder
The key characteristic of anxiety disorders is
feelings of increasing nervousness in the absence of threat
A consequence of experiencing persistent panic attacks can be a(n)
increased risk of suicide
Melanie has social phobia. The more social fears she has, the more likely she is to
Tom frequently has panic attacks. He knows that he is having an attack when he experiences:
sweating, a fast heart rate, feelings of going crazy or dying
Brenda is experiencing an anxiety disorder in which she is afraid of not being able to escape what she perceives to be a threatening situation. Based on this, Brenda is most likely to be diagnosed with
Harold had to quit his job because while he was at work, he constantly worried about a wide variety of things, including what his wife and children were doing at home. In addition, he is easily distracted, often irritable, and sleep deprived. Harold is most likely to be diagnosed with
generalized anxiety disorder
Antonio cannot stop worrying that a thief is going to break into his apartment, so he keeps checking the doors to make sure they are locked. Antonio's worrisome thoughts about a break-in are a(n) ________. The fact that Antonio checks the locks over and over is a(n) ________.
Individuals diagnosed with depression tend to attribute negative outcomes to ________ and positive outcomes to ________.
personal shortcomings; luck
Lithium has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of ________ disorders. However, clients frequently refuse to take this drug because it ________.
bipolar; reduces their positive feelings and elation/high
Carrie recently quit her job, packed up her car, and drove to Las Vegas, where she gambled away her entire life savings in 24 hours. Based on this, Carrie may be experiencing
a manic episode
Nash believes he is a part of a secret spy organization that sends coded messages to its informants through television commercials. Based on this, Nash is most likely experiencing
Phoenix hears voices in his head that tell him to punch holes in the walls of his room. Because Phoenix is perceiving(hearing)the voices without an actual external auditory stimulus, he is experiencing
Ted was diagnosed at age 18 with severe schizophrenia. His functioning has progressively gotten worse since his diagnosis. Compared with people who have more mild cases of schizophrenia, neuroimaging of Ted's brain would reveal that he has
a reduced amount of brain tissue
Alicia has been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Alicia is most likely experiencing
disturbances in identity, emotional instability and impulse control
When Billy meets with his therapist, he makes statements showing that he likes to manipulate other people, is a good liar, and always needs immediate gratification. Billy's disregard for social norms and the feelings of others means that his therapist is most likely to diagnose him with ________ personality disorder.
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