U.S. History Chapter 3 Test:Civil War
Chapter 3 review study guide questions
Terms in this set (66)
What event started the Civil War?
bombing of Fort Sumter
Why was Fort Sumter an important fort to control?
strategic location in order to control access to the port city of Charleston, South Carolina
Why did President Lincoln not want to lose Fort Sumter?
it would be a sign that Lincoln could not control federal property
When federal forts were being bombed, why did President Lincoln hesitate to attack?
remaining slave states threatened to secede from the Union if he used federal force against the Confederacy
When President Lincoln decided to attack, did the slave states secede from the Union?
What were the names of the slave states that seceded from the Union as a result of the bombing of Fort Sumter?
2. North Carolina
All family members fought on the same side.
What advantages did the North have during the Civil War?
1. controlled 85% of the nation's industry
2. most railroad lines were in the North
3. had the U.S. Navy
What advantages did the South have during the Civil War?
1. location (war was fought in the South)
2. only had to fight a defensive war
3. better military leadership
Why did General Lee fight for the Confederacy and turn down President Lincoln's request?
General Lee refused to fight against his home state of Virginia
What critical mistake did President Lincoln make that went against the advise of General Scott?
ordered untrained troops to begin fighting the Civil War at Richmond, Virginia
Who won the first Battle of Bull Run at Manassas?
What did the First Battle of Bull Run signify to both the North and the South?
war would last longer than both sides thought leading both sides to begin training soldiers
President Lincoln and his military advisers adopted a three part strategy to win the Civil War. What were the three parts?
1. capture the Southern capital, Richmond, Virginia
2, gain control of the Mississippi River
3. use a naval blockade on the South
Why was controlling the Mississippi River important to the North?
prevented the South from using it as a waterway to supply its forces
Why did the South plan to capture Washington D.C.?
1. shatter Northern morale
2. disrupt Union communication
Which 2 countries did the Confederacy want support from to defeat the North?
Great Britain and France
Did Great Britain and France support the Confederacy? Why or why not?
No, the 2 countries stockpiled cotton before the bombing of Fort Sumter and later bought it cheaper from Egypt or India
Newly recruited soldiers had no military experience and had few resources.
How did unsanitary conditions in most military camps affect the Civil War?
many soldiers died from disease
What did women do during the Civil War on the home front?
women replaced male factory workers and farmers
Why did many civilians participate in volunteer groups?
raise money to pay for weapons and supplies
Who won most of the battles in the East at the start of the Civil War?
What effect did the Confederate victories have on the Union's military leadership?
Union had 4 different general in one year
Who were the Confederate forces three main generals?
1. General Robert E. Lee
2. General Stonewall Jackson
3. General Johnston
Which Union general had a great deal of success in the West?
General Ulysses S. Grant
Who won the Battle of Shiloh?
At the Battle of Shiloh, General Grant's military advisers encouraged him to retreat. Did he retreat?
No, he surprised the Confederacy by leading a counterattack forcing the Confederacy to retreat
Who won the Battle of New Orleans allowing them to have control of the Mississippi River?
When General McClellan from the Union met Robert E Lee at Yorktown, what happened?
McClellan refused to attack claiming there were too many Confederate troops upsetting President Lincoln
What occurred at the Battle of Seven Pines that hurt the Confederacy?
General Johnston was seriously wounded
When Lee was placed in command of Johnston's forces, what did General McClellan do?
McClellan hesitated and had to retreat at the Seven Days Battle
As a result of McClellan retreating, what did President Lincoln do?
removed General McClellan from his duties and gave General Pope command of he army
Who won the Second Battle of Bull Run?
General Lee defeated General Pope
As a result of Pope's defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run, what did President Lincoln do?
placed General McClellan back in command of the Eastern forces
Women served the war effort in medical roles.
Who was Elizabeth Blackwell?
first woman to be licensed as a doctor
What organization battled diseases and infections during the Civil War?
U.S. Sanitary Commission
Who was Clara Barton?
founder of the Red Cross
What did the South pass that intensified its people?
the first draft in U.S. History
In the South, who did not have to register for the draft?
wealthy plantation owners
Why did the Southern farmers not want to fight in the Civil War?
whites fighting for the freedom of African Americans would allow African Americans to steal their jobs
As the war dragged on, what did Republicans legislate and President Lincoln approve?
African Americans could serve in the military
What was the bloodiest battle in U.S. History?
Battle of Antietam
(25,000 American soldiers killed)
Who won the Battle of Antietam?
General McClellan defeated General Lee with a counterattack
Why did President Lincoln fire General McClellan again after the Battle of Antietam if he won the battle?
he allowed the Confederacy to escape to Virginia and regroup
What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
allowed African Americans to serve in the military
African Americans were treated equally to whites because they were all soldiers fighting on the same side.
1. Black soldiers earned 1/2 the pay of white soldiers
2. Only 100 Black soldiers were commissioned as junior officers
Who won the Battle of Fredericksburg?
General Lee defeated General Burnside
Who won the Battle of Chancellorsville?
General Lee and General Stonewall Jackson defeated General Hooker
At the Battle of Chancellorsville, what did General Hooker do that upset President Lincoln?
General Hooker hesitated allowing the Confederacy to gather more troops
What did President Lincoln do after the loss at Chancellorsville?
replaced General Hooker with General Meade
Which battle was the turning point of the Civil War for the Union?
Battle of Gettysburg
Why was the Union able to defeat the Confederacy at Gettysburg?
Union had the high ground
Who won the Battle of Vicksburg?
General Grant defeated General Lee
How did winning the Battle of Vicksburg help the Union?
gave them complete control of the Mississippi River preventing Confederate reinforcements and supplies
What did President Lincoln do after the Battle of Vicksburg?
gave General Grant complete control of the Union forces
What was Pickett's charge?
General Lee's command for Pickett to rush the Union center on Cemetary Ridge at the Battle of Gettysburg
After President Lincoln gave General Grant complete control, he planned to fight a war of attrition. What did that mean?
General Grant and his forces would press on and fight until the South ran out of supplies
Which Union General matched General Grant's determination in the South?
Who won the Battle of Atlanta?
General Sherman defeated General Johnston
Why did the South losing the Battle of Atlanta hurt them?
South lost their last railroad link across the Appalachian Mountains
How did Sherman's March to the Sea and the victory at Atlanta boost President Lincoln's reelection campaign?
renewed hope that the war would end soon
What did General Sherman believe was necessary to win the war?
strike at the enemy's economic resources
Who won the Civil War?
Where did General Lee surrender?