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Psychology Test # 3
Terms in this set (25)
1. An individual's characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting is called their .....?
2. List and describe the four main theories on personality development discussed in class.
Psychodynamic theory: behavior is a dynamic interaction between conscious and unconscious mind.
Humanistic theory: focus on inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillment.
Trait Theory: examine characteristic patterns of behavior.
Social-Cognitive theories: explore interaction between personality traits and social context.
3. Signing Freud's theory on personality development involved the struggles between three "systems" within our personality. List and explain these three systems according to Freud.
ID: Pleasure principle; strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and act aggressively.
Superego: Ideal behavior; strives for perfections, acts as moral conscious.
Ego: Reality principle; seeks to realistically gratify id's impulses to bring long-term pleasure. Contains thoughts, judgments and memories.
4. According to Freud, in our efforts to reduce anxiety, we create our own defense mechanisms. List and explain three defense mechanisms according to Freud.
Denial - refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities. One denies the other is cheating.
Rationalization - offering self justifying explanations. Someone who drinks often says she does it to be sociable.
Projection - disguising one's threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
A thief thinks everyone else is a thief.
5. How is personality development explained within the Trait Theory?
See personality as a stable and enduring pattern of behavior, describe differences rather than trying to explain them.
6. Our sense of competency on a specific __________ is called our self-efficacy.
7. Explain Albert Bandura's theory regarding self-efficacy.
Performance outcomes : positive or negative experiences can influence ones ability to perform a given task.
Vicarious Experiences: people can develop high or low self-efficacy vicariously through other people's performances.
Physiological feedback: people experience sensations from their body and how they perceive this emotional arousal influences their beliefs of efficacy.
Verbal Persuasion: self efficacy is influenced by encouragement and discouragement pertaining to an individuals performance or ability to perform.
8. _____________ are marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior.
9. What is the name of the manual used by American Psychiatric Association to diagnose mental disorders?
DSM-5: diagnosed and statistical manual of mental disorders.
10. Which anxiety disorder describes when a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal, often without being able to identify a reason.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
11. Which anxiety disorder is characterized by persistent and relative thoughts and actions.
OCD: obsessive compulsive disorder
12. What is the primary difference between major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder..?
Major: person must experience 2 or more weeks with 5 symptoms
Persistent: person experiences mildly depressed mood more often than not for two years.
13. Explain the primary differences between bi-polar types 1 and 2
1. At least 1 manic or mixed episode
2. Never had a manic episode but had at least one hypomanic episode and 1 major depressed episode
14. Give one example of Non-Suicidal self injury.
15. ________ is a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression.
16. What is the name of the disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
Dissociative Identity Disorder
17. Describe Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
A mental condition in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance, a deep need for excessive attention and admiration. Trouble with relationships and lacks empathy for others.
18. Describe Borderline Personality Disorder.
Includes a pattern of unstable intense relationships, distorted self image, extreme emotions and impulsiveness. Has an intense fear of abandonment or instability and has difficulty being alone.
19. List and describe the three most common eating disorders.
Anorexia nervosa: when you starve yourself describe being significantly underweight.
Bulimia nervosa: usually a person will binge eat and than vomit it all back up.
Binge-eating Disorder: binge eating followed with disgust or guilt but without vomiting it back up.
20. _______describes when a trained therapist uses psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties or achieve personal growth.
21. What are the primary goals and techniques used in within humanistic therapy perspective.
Goals: help clients grow in self-awareness and self acceptance promoting personal growth.
Techniques: focus on taking responsibility for actions, dealing with the present, and planning for the future.
22. Explain the therapeutic approach of systematic desensitization.
Associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
23. Describe the goal and techniques of aversion therapy.
Goal: conditioning an aversion to something the person should avoid
Techniques: unwanted behavior is associated with unpleasant feelings
24. _______ includes the study of drug effects on the mind and behavior.
25. How do anti-depressants work to help a person feel fewer symptoms of depression?
Increases availability of serotonin or norepinephrine
Effectiveness sometimes question due to spontaneous recovery and placebo effect.
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