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ACS GEN CHEM 1 FINAL
Terms in this set (44)
1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
2) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
4) A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Mother Eats Peanut Butter:
...then greek prefixes
change in spontaneity of a system.
ΔG = ΔH - TΔS, where ΔH = change in enthalpy and ΔS = change in entropy.
Gibbs Free Energy
change in chaos of a system.
Occurs when three atoms and one non-bonding pair is arranged around a central atom. Polar.
Arrangement of four objects around a central atom. Non-polar.
Occurs when one non-bonding pairs and two atoms are arranged around a central atom. Polar.
Arrangement of two objects around a central atom. Non-polar.
Bonding occurs between orbitals that are side-by-side.
Formed by head-on overlapping between orbitals.
Tetrahedral Bond Angle
give the actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecules
give the relative numbers and types of atoms in a molecule
cations formed from metal will have
the same name as the metal
added to represent the lower charged cations
added to represent the higher charged cations
added to cations formed from non-metals
added to the end of a monatomic anion (has 3 exceptions:)
more than one atom but still +ide:
hydroxide, cyanide, peroxide
is added to the most common or sole oxyanion of the element
ex. CO3^2- = carbonate, CrO4^2- = chromate
is used for an oxyanion with the same charge but one less O atom
ex. SO4^2- = sulfATE but SO3^2- = sulfITE
NO3- = nitrATE, but NO2- = nitrITE
oxyanions with more than two members in the series are named:
(Halogens, except F)
if ____ide + H
if ____ate + H
if _____ite + H
prefixes used in naming binary compounds formed between nonmetals
7 Strong acids:
HCl, HBr, HI (halides), HNO3, H2SO4, HClO3, HClO4
7 Strong Bases
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
atom, molecule or ion becomes more positively charged , reducing agent
atom, molecule or ion that has become more negatively charged/ less positively charged, oxidizing agent
measure of the electron control than an atom has in a compound compared to the atom in a pure element
1. Energy can not be created or destroyed
2. energy of (system + surroundings) is constant
3. any energy transferred from a system must be transferred to the surroundings (and vise versa)
4. ∆E = q + w
First Law of Thermodynamics
if heat is absorbed q is:
if heat is evolved q is:
if work is done on the sysytem w is:
if work is done by the system
system absorbs heat from its surroundings, q is positive
system flows heat to the surroundings
breakinga bond is ___
shiny/lustrous, malleable, ductable, their oxides form from basic ionic solids, and they tend to form cations in aqueous solution
generally don't conduct heat or electricity, lower melting/boiling points, have high ionization energies, have large negative electron affinities
This set is often in folders with...
ACS Gen Chem 1
ACS Gen Chem 1.0
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