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Terms in this set (46)
what is crude oil?
a mixture of hydrocarbons containing different molecules made only of hydrogen and carbon
what is a homologous series?
-the same general formula
-similar chemical properties
what is a hydrocarbon?
a compound made of only hydrogen and carbon
what do saturated and unsaturated mean?
saturated = something bonded as many times as possible
unsaturated = more bonds can be made
what is the general formula?
the most simplified the ratio of molecules can be
what is an isomer?
they have he same general formula but different structure
what is the Alkanes general formula?
what is he displayed formula for alkanes?
every carbon is bonded with 2 hydrogen and there will always be a hydrogen at each end
e.g for ethane
1 carbon alkane
2 carbon alkane
3 carbon alkane
4 carbon alkane
5 carbon alkane
6 carbon alkane
7 carbon alkane
8 carbon alkane
what does complete combustion produce?
carbon dioxide (CO2) and water
what does incomplete combustion produce?
carbon monoxide (CO) and water
Substitution reaction of bromine and methane
in UV light bromine and methane will form bromomethane (bromine takes the place of 1 hydrogen)
what is the equation for the reaction of bromine and methane?
CH4 + Br2 -> CH3Br + HBr
1. Crude oil is heated until it boils (floats upwards as a gas)
2.As the gas goes higher (further from heat source) the temp decreases
3. When a compound reaches its condensing point it will condense and be collected as a liquid
fractions obtained from crude oil
use of refinery gas
use of gasoline (petrol)
fuel for cars
use of naptha
use of kerosene
use of diesel fuel
fuel for vehicals
use of fuel oil
fuel for ships, powerstations
use of residue
bitumen for roads and roofs
what is the addition reaction of alkenes with bromine?
an alkene will make its double bond into a single bond in order to bond to 2 bromines
1.bromine is added to the molecule
2.the product is made colourless (when alkenes are put in bromine water it turns from brown to colourless)
what happens with incomplete combustion?
If there is not enough oxygen around the fuels hey combust incompletely creating carbon monoxide
why is carbon monoxide dangerous?
it binds to the haemoglobin faster than O2, but there isn't enough oxygen therefore making it toxic
how are nitrogen oxides formed?
in car engines there is a high temperature to cause a reaction between oxygen and nitrogen in the air, making nitrogen oxides NO
what happens at the top of the distillation chamber?
-low boiling point
what happens at the bottom of the distillation chamber?
-high boiling point
-not very viscous
what does carbon dioxide do?
-prevents heat from leaving the earths atmosphere leading to climate change
why are nitrogen oxides dangerous?
they are pollutant gases
how is acid rain produced?
NO and SO2 are given off into the atmosphere by some industrial processes, when in he air they react with rain water to make H+ ions creating acid rain
what are he dangers of acid rain?
-corrode rocks and buildings
-alters pH in soil and rivers affecting ecosystems
what are short chain hydrocarbons like?
less flammable and more viscous
what are long chain hydrocarbons like?
burn well, flow week and can be cracked
what is catalytic cracking?
breaking up long chain hydrocarbons into short chain hydrocarbons
how does catalytic cracking happen?
1. long chain hydrocarbons are passed over a hot catalyst
2. as some atoms are lost they can become unsaturated and then form a double bond
3. this is how you get short gain alkanes and alkenes
what heat and what catalyst must be used during catalytic cracking?
600-700°, silica or alumina
what is the general formula of alkenes?
there is one double bond between 2 carbons, but carbon can only make 4 bonds and the double bonds counts at 2
what are the names of alkenes?
the same as alkanes but with an e
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Groups 1 and 7
chemical cals 2
atomic structure and bonding
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