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Unit 1 final Bio
Terms in this set (40)
A plant will begin flowering in response to changes in length of daylight, temperature, and light quality. This is an example of which unifying principle of life?
Living organisms interact with their environment
Whether the external temperature is hot or cold, birds maintain an internal body temperature of approximately 40°C. This is an example of ____.
Which level of organization is common to all life forms?
The complete genetic composition of an organism is called is....
A researcher hypothesizes that crocodile gender is determined by incubation temperature of the egg. The hypothesis states that an average nest temperature of 32-33 degrees Celsius results in the birth of the male crocodile while cooler and higher incubation temperatures result in female crocodiles. what is a valid, testable prediction based on this hypothesis?
Incubation of any crocodile egg at 32°C will result in a male crocodile
The nucleus of an atom is composed of
Protons and neutrons
what type of bonding is likely to occur between two water molecules or strands of DNA
For water to vaporize..
both energy must be supplied and hydrogen bonds broken.
possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties
The most significant role played by pH buffers is to
limit major shifts in the amount of H+ and OH- in solution.
The functional group that forms covalent bonds between R groups within a polypeptide and that stabilizes tertiary structure is
A dehydration reaction
is used to form polymers
What structure best represents a polymer
The macromolecule that can accomplish the widest range of biological functions are:
the largest molecule
major class of macromolecules that stores energy and makes up the major component of plasma membranes are ____
The structural difference between saturated and unsaturated fats causes what type of change at room temperature?
linear structure of a fatty acid causes solid formation at room temperature
A protein's _______ structure contains helixes and sheets that result from hydrogen bonding between carboxyl and amino groups of the polypeptide chain.
An amino acid is to a protein as a _____ is to a nucleic acids
The key structural difference between DNA and RNA is:
As their names indicate, DNA contains deoxyribose, whereas RNA contains ribose. Thus, DNA contains a different sugar than RNA
Prokaryotes, such as bacterial cells, differ from eukaryotes in the eukaryotes
possess membrane-bound organelles
the nucleus is to eukaryotes as the ______ is to prokaryotes
the route that most accurately describes secretory protein movement through the endomembrane system would be
rough endoplasmic reticulum
ribosomes are the structures in the cell that produce
the function of the eukaryotes membrane include
- barriers separating extracellular and intracellular environments
-cell to cell adhesion
The structure that easily distinguishes a plant cell from an animal cell is
Cyanide binds and impairs one of the molecules involved in the synthesis of ATP. The target organelle for cyanide must be
the organelle that best enables an athlete's tissues to be metabolically active are
you are injecting a dye into a eukaryotic cell to detect a specific functional enzymes in the cytosol. Where would you need to inject the dye
The dye would go between the plasma membrane and the membrane of the organelles
the cytoskeleton structure(s) that are composed of actin and regulate cell shape, cell movement and muscle contraction include
what are the two major components of cell membranes
phospholipids and proteins
which membrane component is most important for allowing large, charged molecules to pass through the membrane
How might a plant cell compensate for the excessive membrane fluidity that occurs during prolonged exposures to elevated temperatures?
Alter the lipids composition to have longer phospholipids tails and fewer double bonds
what process best characterizes Ca2+ movement from the cytosol (low Ca2+ concentration) into the endoplasmic reticulum (high Ca2+ concentration)?
Calcium movement involves active transport.
placing celery sticks in fresh water will make them more turgid and harder. this is because
the celery is hypertonic to fresh water
Water diffuses through certain organs such as the kidneys and bladder much faster than would occur by passive diffusion through a lipid bilayer alone. What accounts for this more rapids rate of water transport in these organs?
Presence of aquaporin channels for facilitated diffusion of water
The movement of sucrose and H+ into the cell by the same membrane protein reflects the actions of what type of transporter?
______ bind two or more ions or molecules and transport them in opposite directions across a membrane
The plasma membrane Na+/K+ -ATPase pump
is used to generate sodium and potassium gradients across the membrane
The release of the protein insulin from pancreatic cells occurs by
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