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12 terms

Chapter 15: From DNA to Protein: Biology: The Dynamic Science

san jacinto author: russell
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Reading frame
The way a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons.
Transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Posttranscriptional modifications
modified structures created after transcription
Role of tRNA
brings different amino acids form cytoplasm to ribosome
Codons
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
anticodons
Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA
Wobble
A violation of the base-pairing rules in that the third nucleotide (5' end) of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon.
Ribosomes
protein synthesis
Polyribosomes
An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.
Mutations
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity
Mutagens
agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells
Frameshift
A nucleotide is inserted or deleted, changing where the coding for entirely different amino acids.