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36 terms

AP Chem Chapter 4

General Chemistry ebbings-gammon chapter 4 vocabulary
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electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
nonelectrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a nonconducting or very poorly conducting solution
strong electrolyte
a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions
weak electrolyte
a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions
molecular equation
the formulas of the compounds are written as though all species existed as molecules or whole units
complete ionic equation
a chemical equation in which strong electrolytes (such as soluble ionic compounds) are written as separate ions in the solution
spectator ion
an ion in an ionic equation that does not taken part in the reaction
net ionic equation
an ionic equation from which spectator ions have been cancelled
precipitate
an insoluble solid compound formed during a chemical reaction in solution
exchange reaction
(metathesis) a reaction between compounds that, when written as a molecular equation appears to involve the exchange of parts between two reactants
acid-base indicator
a dye used to distinguish between an acidic or basic solution by means of color change
Arrhenius acid
a substance that produces H+ ions
Arrhenius base
a substance that produces OH- ions
Bronsted and Lowry Acids
donates a proton to another species in a proton transfer reaction
Bronsted and Lowry Bases
accepts the proton from the acid
strong acid
ionizes completely in water- strong electrolyte
weak acid
only partly ionizes in water- weak electrolyte
strong base
a species that is completely ionized to OH- ions in dilute water solution
weak base
A base that does not dissociate completely into ions in solution.
neutralization reaction
acids and bases react to form water and a salt
salt
Any ionic compound that can be made from the neutralization of an acid with a base
polyprotic acid
an acid that yields two or more acidic hydrogens per molecule
oxidation number
(oxidation state) the actual charge of the atom if it exists as a mono-atomic ion or a hypothetical charge assigned to the atom in the substance by simple rules
red-ox reaction
reaction in which electrons are transferred between species or in which atoms change oxidation numbers
half reaction
An equation that describes either the loss or the gain of electrons. Two half reactions combine to form a chemical reaction
oxidation
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction
reduction
any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen
oxidizing agent
a substance that oxidizes another substance
reducing agent
The electron donor in a redox reaction.
combination reaction
a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance
decomposition reaction
a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
displacement reaction
(single replacement) a reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound
combustion reaction
a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light
molar concentration (molarity)
the moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution. (M)
M= moles of solute/liters of solution
Quantitative analysis
chemical analysis to determine the amounts of each element in the substance
Gravimetric analysis
A type of analysis that involves precipitation and weighing