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H Chemistry Midterm
Terms in this set (26)
1.All matter consists of invisible particles called atoms.
2. Atoms are indestructible.
3. Atoms are solid but invisible.
1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
2) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
4) A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.
-basic unit of a chemical element.
- has central nucleus containing protons and neutrons
has electrons revolving around nucleus
Subatomic particles charge/mass
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
location of subatomic particles
b.)Why is atomic mass different than the mass number.
a.) Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
b.) Actual mass is the weighted average of the isotope mass
How do you calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number along with the atomic mass.
atomic number tells you protons and electrons
subtract atomic number from mass number to get nuetrons
Explain the relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay.
Atoms that contain too many or two few neutrons are unstable and lose energy through radioactive decay to form a stable nucleus.
Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.
alpha: Mass, 4; Charge, 2+.
beta: Mass, 1/1840; Charge, 1-.
gamma:.Mass, 0; Charge, 0.
Define a quantum of energy and explain how it is related to an energy change of matter.
The minimum amount that can be gained or lost by an atom. Atoms can only gain or lose energy in a whole number quanta
Contrast continuous electromagnetic spectra and atomic emission spectra.
The continuous electromagnetic spectrum includes all wavelengths and frequencies. The atomic emission spectrum only includes the wavelengths that are emitted from an atom that is losing energy
Compare the wave and particle models of light.
Wave nature and particle nature of light means that light has characteristics of both a wave and particle
*Color, wavelength are examples of wave characteristics
* The photoelectric is an example of a particle characterisic
Compare the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of the atom.
In the Bohr Model, the electron is treated as a particle in fixed orbits around the nucleus. In the Quantum Mechanical Model, the electron is treated mathematically as a wave. The electron has properties of both particles and waves.
Explain the impact of de Broglie's wave-particle duality and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle on the modern view of electrons in atoms.
de Broglie: proved matter acted as both a wave and particle
Heisenberg: as a particles position becomes more clear, its speed becomes less know because everything in the universe can act as both a wave and a particle
Identify the relationships among a hydrogen atom's energy levels, sub-levels, and atomic orbitals.
Apply the Aufbau Principle and Hund's rule to write electron configurations using electron configuration notation.
Hund's rule: every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
Aufbau Principle: The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. ... In this way, the electrons of an atom or ion form the most stable electron configuration possible.
Define valence electrons and draw electron-dot structures representing an atom's valence electrons.
a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed
equal to its group(A,B)
total amount of dots = #of valence electrons
Identify the relationships among an atom's energy levels, sublevels, and atomic orbitals.
Energy Level = period
sublevels = spdf
atomic orbitals = clouds of possibility clouds of atoms.
Periodic Table, Trends and Properties
Trace the development and identify key features of the periodic table.
Explain why elements in the same group have similar properties.
They have the same amount of valence electrons
Identify the four blocks of the periodic table based on electron configuration.
S, P, D, F.
Compare period and group trends of several properties.
Relate period and group trends in atomic radii to electron configuration.
Compare/Relate period and group trends of several properties.
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