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Social Psychology Exam #1
Terms in this set (105)
The scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to each other.
How we perceive ourselves and others, what we believe, judgments we make, and our attitudes.
Culture, pressure to conform, persuasion, and groups of people.
Prejudice, aggression, attraction and intimacy, helping, social interactions, and altruism.
What is the difference between social psychology and personality psychology?
• Personality Psych. Focuses on our individual differences, whereas Social Psych. Focuses on common ground among all individuals as opposed to differences between individuals
What is the difference between social psychology and sociology?
• Social Psychology focuses on the individual in the group and groups in abstraction, How does the individual change as a result of being in the wider group. Sociology focuses on development, structure, functioning and problems of specific social groups.
An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Socially shared beliefs widely held ideas and values, including out assumptions and cultural ideologies. Out social representations help us make sense of our world.
The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out. Also known as the "I knew it all along phenomenon"
An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events
A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events
Research done in natural real-life settings outside the laboratory
THe study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationship by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)
Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion.
the way a question or an issue is posed; framing can influence peoples decisions and expressed opinions
The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates
The variable being measured, so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variable
the process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition.
What is the difference between random assignment and random sampling?
Random assignment helps us infer cause and effect, while random sampling helps us generalize to a population.
Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations
Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
In research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study's methods and purposes.
Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected
An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
In social psychology, the post-experimental explanation of a study to its participants. Debriefing usually discloses any deception and often queries participants regarding their understanding and feelings.
The belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are.
Illusion of transparency
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
What you would say if asked the question "who am I?" Who and what you think you are
A knowledge structure containing information about the self
Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future
Evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.
What determines our self-concept?
The roles we play, the social identities we form, the comparisons we make with ourselves, our successes and failures, how other people judge us, and the surrounding culture.
The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Giving priority to the goals of one's group (often ones extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
construing one's identity in relation to others.
What is the self-concept of a independent person?
Personal, defined by individual traits and goals. Me - personal achievement and fulfillment; my rights and liberties. Disapproves of conformity. "To thine own self be true".
What is the self-concept of a interdependent person?
Social, defined by connections with others. We - group goals solidarity; our social responsibilities and relationships. Disapproves of egotism. "No one is an island"
the tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task
overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
the human tendency to underestimate the speed and the strength of the "psychological immune system", which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen
Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes towards the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
An individuals overall self-evaluation or sense of self worth
A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one's sense of self-worth. A bombardier might feel high self-efficacy and low self-esteem
Locus of control
the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controlled by their own efforts or externally controlled by chance and outside forces
the sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events
the tendency to perceive oneself favorably
a form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors
the adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one's anxiety to motivate effective action
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the commonality of ones opinions and ones undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors
false uniqueness effect
the tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviors
explaining away out-group members positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions while excusing such behavior by one's own group
protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure
the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals
being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression
People or objects which are incorporated into one's self-concept (our psychological self is very different from our biological self) I.e. spouses, children, parents, siblings, animals, etc.
Any self references about ourselves are things that we will always remember
Can we really know ourselves?
How do we go about looking for and processing self-relevant information
The truth about ourselves, "Am I a good person, please tell me the truth" This is the lowest level of needs.
We want to find information which tells us what we already hold that is true about ourselves, we want to verify what we already know to be true about ourselves.
The desire to see ourselves in the best possible light.
The idea that when we go about trying to explain events that we are involved with, there is an asymmetry as to how to interpret our role. We have no problem with seeing as having a part in something that went well or that was good, but when we are involved in events that turn out to be failures, we remove ourselves.
The better then average effect - in anything that we value, when we compare ourselves with others, we think we are better then most other people.
This has to do with how we view the future, compared to other peoples futures, estimates of future events about ourselves are enhanced, we tend to think we are immune to bad events compared to others.
how do we attribute causality
that's just who that person is, something about the person themselves was the cause. Something unique to a certain person
something outside of them was the cause, a different person would have the same reaction because it is not about the person, its about the external factors. something outside of them was the cause, a different person would have the same reaction because it is not about the person, its about the external factors.
Fundamental attribution error
When the actor is someone else other then you, we tend to think that the causality is internal "that's just who they are". But when we are the actor, we always are aware that there are external attributions that are making us do whatever we are doing.
Beliefs are created more easily than they are erased
• Cognitive inertia - once our beliefs go in one direction, it takes a lot more effort to get them going the other direction, it isn't impossible, but its hard.
The memory is part reproduction and part construction, our memory is influence by previous events, substitution and "fill-in", the "misinformation effect"(through misleading questions you can interfere with peoples memories),
The tendency to be more confident than correct, how well did you think you were going to do this semester? How well did you think your favorite sports team was going to do this year?
The tendency to search for information that confirms our preconceptions while not searching for information that disconfirms our preconceptions.
Rules of thumb or mental shortcuts designed to save time and energy
the tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling a typical member
a cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace.
Mental simulations of what might have been, "If only" thinking. This can greatly influence mood, future action, and judgments.
The perception of a relationship between two events when none actually exists, or perceiving that there is a stronger bond then there actually is.
Illusions of Control
The belief that chance events are subject to our influence, Gamblers Fallacy - the belief that earlier outcomes force later outcomes, that behind the scenes there is something forcing things to work out the way you think they will.
When acting on our mistaken beliefs inadvertently and unknowingly changes the behavior of others to mesh with our mistaken beliefs.
incorporating misinformation into one's memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it.
activating particular associations in memory
explicit thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious
implicit thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly corresponds to intuition
Regression toward the average
the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return towards one's average
mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source
the theory of how people explain others behavior - for example, by attributing it either to internal dispositions or external situations
attributing behavior to the person's dispositions and traits
attributing behavior to the environment
spontaneous trait inference
an effortless, automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someone's behavior
a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.
a self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions.
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon other's behavior. (also called correspondence bias, because we so often see behavior as corresponding to a disposition.)
A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone (often rooted in one's beliefs, and exhibited in one's feelings and intended behavior.)
Implicit association test (IAT)
a computer-driven assessment of implicit attitudes. The test uses reaction times to measure people's automatic associations between attitudes objects and evaluative words. Easier parings and faster responses are taken to indicate stronger unconscious associations
A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position out to behave.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
a tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it
tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another.
Reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one's behavior when external justification is "insufficient"
the theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under with it occurs
Over justification effect
the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather that intrinsically appealing.
a theory that (a) people often experience a self-image threat, after engaging in an undesirable behavior; and (b)they can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self. Threaten peoples self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain.
Review all four of the articles that we had to read for this section: Why we overestimate our competence, flashbulb memories, implicit discrimination, and deception in experiments.
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