WHH MIDTERM

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What was the agrarian (NEOLITHIC) Revolution?
the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture
What were the results of the Neolithic Revolution?
climate change, shift to cultivation of grains, domesticaed animals, civilization, permanent settlements, new technology, writing, surpluses=economies, and religion-polytheism.
Monotheistc
the exclusive worship of a single god, introduced by the Jews into western civilization
Polytheistc
belief in multiple gods (Egyptian)
Pyramids
momumental architecture typical of old kingdom Egypt;used as burial sites for pharaoh's tombS, for afterlife
Describe Hammurabi's Law Code
Babloyian codified laws in region, based on wealth and social status.
Founding of Judaism
Content between Abraham and god; worshipped him in exchange for being the chosen people. Moses led Jews to Palestine in search of homeland after being held captive by the Egyptians.
What were the Ten Commandments
set of laws set by God and given to Moses to stress ethical conduct and moral behavior
Vedas
book of knowledge; Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books-origins of Hinduism
What was the mandate of heaven?
divine source for political legitimacy of Chinese rulers; established by Zhou dynasty to justify the overthrow of the Shang
Describe the role of writing in chinese society
early Chinese rulers helped unify their territory through script-due to the overwhelming number of dialects and languages
Why did the Han dynasty fall
the golden age of China; wars and large wealthy landowners avoided taxes which fell on peasants who turned into serfs, social unrest, invasions by barbarians (huns)
Dynasties
began with the Shang, dynastic cycle-golden year, corruption, the mandate of heaven, then new dynasty
Lazoi
recluse thinker, no use for government ethical requirements, also known as Lao Tsu, the major Chinese philosopher in the 4th century; recommended the retreat from society into nature, individual should seak to become attended to Dao
Dao
the way, religious system that stresses contemplation, self-centering, and reverence for the natural world
Legalism
political philosophy that China's rulers should have absolute power; strict laws w harsh punishments; people excited to serve the state
Scholar-gentry
the Chinese class created by material linkage of local landholding, shi, as governers of China/ new class of wealth
What did Confucianism stress
respect, support, and knowledge for the superior man
Which Chinese dynasty adopted legalism
Qin and Shi Huangdi
Polis
city state government (origin of word politics)
Socrates
athenian philosopher of later 5th century B.C.E.; tutor of Plato, urged rational reflection of moral decisions; condemned to death for corrupting minds of Athenian young
Plato
greek philosophy taught knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms of outside the material world, a proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled,
Aristotle
greek philosopher, teacher of Alexander the great; espoused based on observation of phenomena in material world
Describe the role of geography in Ancient Greece
mountains separated different groups allowing them to develop differently, created a social gap; coastal settlements were more developed than inland. Small plains and river valleys, only 20 percent of land farmable. Seas-Aeregaean, Mediterranean, and Black- allowed trade and colonization
What areas did Alexander conquer
persia,greece, egypt, and Indus River
What was Alexander's most lasting legacy?
Hellenic culture- a spread of Greek language, art, agriculture, and literature to the empire
Hinduism
no founder or text, each person as a specific role (dharma). aryans mixed with cultural beliefs of the Dravidian culture
Dharma
the caste position and career determined by a person's birth; Hindu culture required that one accpet one's social position and perform occupation to the best of one's ability in order to have a better situation in next life
Karma
the sum of merits accumlated by a soul at any give time; determined the caste to which the soul would be assigned in the next life. (Good dharma brings good karma)
Reincarnation
the successive attachment of the soul to some animated form according to merits earned in previous lives
What Hindu ideas did Buddha keep and which did he challenge
Kept-reincarnation and karma. Rejected- Vedas, gods, Brahms and their power, caste system
Roman Republic
the balanced constitution of Rome; featured an aristocratic senate a panel of magistrates, and several assembles
Punic wars
fought between Rome and Carthage to establish dominance in Western Mediterranean; won by Rome after 3 wars
Who was Augustus Caesar? Why was he significant?
after the death of Julius Caesar, a triumvirate was unsuccessful. Led by the military battle between Octavian and Marc Anthony, winner: Octavian. Pax Romana-time of peace, economic prosperity, and political stability for 200 years.
What are the four noble truths
1. ordinary life is full of suffering
2. suffering is caused by desire to satisfy ourselves
3. way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals and others
4. end desire by following eightfold path
Aryans
Indo-European nomadic post oralists who replaced Harappan civilization; militarized society
What was Rome's greatest legacy
greatest political legacy=law and legal system; art, architecture, engineering, literature, roads, and latin
Who split the Roman Empire?
Diocletian, divided the empire into 4, each with its own ruler to make it more efficient; didn't work; Constantine split it into 2; didn't work
What were the reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire
political instability, civil war, invasions, epidemic diseases, economic-farm production, not enough food, demand by wealth for luxury goods=massive inflation. nomadic tribes attacked the empire, military costs overwhelmed empire-forts, soldier, wars
Olmec
mother civilization in Mesoamerica, the cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico; featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems; GONE BITCH/a mystery
Qur'an
recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam
Jihand
holy wars, crusades, in defense of their faiths
Hijra
muhammad's flight to Medina; marks the first year of the Islamic calander
Five pillars
obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, pray five times a day facing mecca, fast during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
What caused the split within Islam? Who supported what
After muhammad's death, their was dispute between if the new leader (caliph) should be someone from Muhammad's family-(shi'te; minority) or the holiest (Sunni-majority)
Hagia Sophia
new church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian
Kievan Rus
the predecessor to Modern Russia; a medieval state that existed from the end of the 9th to middled of the 13th century; its territory spanned parts of modern Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia
What was the Byzantine Empire's capital
Constantinople
Describe the territories Justinian re-conquered
strongest byzatine empeoror; military conquests to reinstablish Rome. Recaptured north Africa from vandals, Italy, and Spain. Codified roman law and build Hagia Sophia
Feudalism
the social organization created by exchanging grants of land or fiefs for formal oats of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty and European and Japanese "Middle Ages" greater lords provided protection and aid to less lords in return for military service
Describe the role of the church
stabilizing factor after Rome, cradle grave services, legitimized the role of political leaders
What were the causes of the Crusades
causes-series of holy wars between European Christians and Muslims to free Jerusalem from Islamic rule. Pass given to participants get to go to heaven. First-Time Europe was outside the continent.
What were the effects of the Crusades
unsuccessful as wars but opened eyes to a wealth of goods and ideas
What caused the spread of the plague?
killed 1/3 of the Europeans when infected fleas came to Europe via Trade
Why did feudalism decline?
crusades; new agricutural techniques= more agriculture=more people=new markets=rise of towns= new economies; black death; consolidation of power by kings and parliaments
Tenochtitlan
founded c.1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power;
Inca
group of clans centered at Cuzco that was able to create an empire incorporating various Andean cultures; the term also used for the leader of the empire
Chinampas
beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to make "floating islands" system if irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs.
Mita
labor extracted from lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control
Junk
chinese ships equipped with water weight bulkheads, sternmost rudders, compasses, bamboos fenders, a dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Describe the Aztec religion
polytheistic and human sacrifice for the gods
What were the achievements of the Inca?
pottery,cloth,agriculture, writing, metal working,
Jinshi
title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office
Pure land Buddhism
emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese soceity
Zen Buddhism
known as Chan Buddhism in china; stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty
What was the purpose of foot binding?
to cripple women and for them only to able to be mobile in their houses.
Tale of the Genji
written by Lady Murasaki; the first novel in any language relates life history of the prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for the mannered style of Japanese society.
What did China Japan adopt from China
Buddhism, centralized power, scholar-gentry
Pax Mongolia
time of prosperity in Mongolia
What territories did Mongols Conquer
Russia, China, Korea, southeast Asia, Persia, India, the Middle East and eastern Europ