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MCAT Kaplan Review Chapter 3
Terms in this set (93)
Types of structural proteins
Collagen, keratin, actin, tubullin, elastin. usually have repeating domains
Types of motor proteins
ATPase activity. Myosin (binds to microfilaments actin), kinesin and dyneins (interact with tubulin in microtubules and are important in mitosis and vesicle transport).
Bind to objects (sometimes for transport such as hemoglobin). Affinity for ligands is dependant
Cell Adhesion molecules
Cadhedrins (Two cells bind using calcium), integrins (one cell binds to proteins in extracellular matrix), selectins (one cellbind to carbs on cell surface).
Antibodies. Are Y shaped and held together by disulfides.
A method of analyzing protein primary sequence by breaking it at the N terminal side. only works with small sequences.
Bradford Protein Assay
Coomassie blue is brown when protenated. It protenates the proteins and turns blue in the process. Increased protein concentration is more blue
0th law of therymodynamics
If an object is in thermal eq with another, and that is in thermal eq with a third, then the first and third object are in thermal eq.
Length dependence of solids on temperature.
Volume dependence of liquids on temperature.
Delta L = a L Delta T
Delta V = a V Delta T
Can't exchange energy with the surroundings
Can exchange energy but not matter with the surroundings
Can exchange energy and matter with the surroundings
First Law of Thermodynamics
U = Q - W. U = Q - PdV
Second Law of Thermodynamic
Objects in thermal contact but not in thermal eq will exchange heat.
transfer of heat by physical contact between two objects
Transfer of heat by means of liquid or gas carrying thing. Free liquid or gas needed.
Transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves. Think sunlight
Occurs is the ampulla of the fallopian tube, where the sperm cell forms an acrosomal apparatus and breaks through the corona radiata and zona pellucida of the egg cell which it is finishing up meiosis II (it was arrested at metaphase II).
The release of calcium ions in the membrane of the egg after fertilization that stop fertilization by multiple sperm cells and also depolarizes membrane and allows increased metabolic rate of the new zygote.
Dizygotic twin vs minozygotic twin formation
Dizygotic is when you have two egg cells that get fertilized.
Monozygotic is when you have the zygote splitting
The zygote undergoes cleavage and becomes a embryo (zygote is unicellular). The first few divisions preserve size, thus increasing nucleus and surface area of each cell, allowing better diffusion of gas and nutrients.
Indeterminate cleavage vs determinate cleavage
Indeterminate : still stem cells. Determinate: differentiation
anatomy of pregnancy
chorion- a membrane that becomes placenta as well.
Chorionic villi- maternal-fetal gas exchange
umbilical cord- carries nutrients and food to the baby
Yolk sac- until placenta is functional, theres a yolk sac support
Allantois- early fluid exchange between embryo and yolk sac
Amnion- this membrane with amniotic fluid for shock absorbing
forms the blastula (has an inner cavity called bastocoel). Has trophoblast which gives rise to the chorion and the inner cell mass which gives rise to the actual baby.
The archenteron pushes into the blastocoel. The out part is called the bastopore. This is the development of three layers.
Gives rise to things that attract to us, such as the outer features and the nervous system. Adrenal medulla
Means of getting around. Musculoskeletal, circulatory, digestive, respiratory, connective tissue, adrenal cortex.
Respiratory and digestive lining. Develops from archenteron, lungs, bladder, liver, pancreas, digestive, stomach, intestine
The ability of one group of cells to influence the fate of nearby cells
Substances that interfere with development
Neural crest cells
Move outwards during differentiation and form the peripheral nervous system (Adrenal medulla, Schwann cells, etc.)
develops into the chorion and placenta. Formed is blastula stage
induce receptors of adjacent cell
What factors affect success after cell induction/differentiation?
Cells must be able to mugrate to correct location (neural crest). Some cells also need to die (fingers are webbed at birth) through apoptosis. Regeneration can be complete or incomplete.
Signaling molecules that stimulate cell differentiation and development.
Biological aging. Cells fail to divide after about 50 divisions because of shortened telomeres
The ends of chromosomes that are alot of G-C base pairs (very difficult to replicate).
determination vs differentiation
Determination is commitment to a certain fate while differentiation is the actual changes that occur in order for the cell to assume a function.
Cells die because of damaged tissue (different from apoptosis)
These stop blood from going into fetal lungs and liver because does not need. Mother's liver does detoxification. Foramen ovale (connects right atrium to left) and ductus asteriosus (shunts leftover blood from pulmonary artery to aorta) from blood from entering the lungs and the ductus venosus (shunts blood returning from placenta to inferior vena cava) shunts blood going to the liver.
cervix thins out and the amniotic sac breaks (water breaks) and strong uterine contractions. Usually 9th month is when babies get antibodies form mother as well. Contractions coordinated by prostagladins and oxytocin
The way in which we acquire new behavior
Habituation and dishabituation
habituation: no response to a stimuli. Dishabituation: getting that respond back
associating two stimuli or a stimuli with a behavior. Think classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Pavlov and his dogs. Unconditioned behavior: food. Unconditioned response: salivate. Conditioned behavior: Bells. Conditioned behavior: salivate. If unconditioned stimulus not presented with conditioned stimulus enough times, the dog will become habituated and there will be extinction of the conditioning. But there is spontaneous recovery.
Stimulus similar enough to the one conditioned could also elicit a response. little albert afraid of mice...and men in white beards.
B.F. Skinner (behaviorism). Distinguishable from classical conditioning in that it is voluntary. Operant conditioning reinforces positive behavior and punishes negative. Positive enforcers increase behavior with reward. Negative enforcers increase behavior be removing something unpleasant. Positive punishment decrease behavior by adding something unpleasant. Negative punishment decrease behavior by removing something pleasant.
A type of negative reinforcer. Role of behavior is to reduce something unpleasant. IE Taking asprin to reduce headaches
A type of negative reinforcer. Role of behavior to prevent unpleasantness. IE studying for a test ahead of time
Using a conditioned stimulus to act as a positive reinforcer. Dolphin trainers use a clicking noise to act as fish, which enforces dolphin behavior
Variable ratio works best. Fixed ratio and time have lulls.
Rewarding increasingly specific behavior. Can help train extremely complicated behavior.
Learning that occurs without a reward. The behavior happens as soon as reward is introduced.
Located in the frontal and parietal lobes. Fire when we see someone perform an action and we perform the same action.
Methods of encoding
Visual, acoustic and semantic. Semantic is best and visual is worst.
Self-reference effect- we remember best what can connect to our lives
method of loci
Imagine a list associated with buildings along a memorized route
Associate a list with a rhyming word-number system
Group letters together to remember
Lasts a second
Short term memory
Lasts 30 s. Housed in hippocampus where it is turned into long term memory. Follow 7+22 rule.
similar to short term memory. Allows us to keep certain pieces of memory and simultaneously alter them in our head. Mental math.
Long term memory
Moved to the cerebral cortex by the hippocampus. Limitless. Implicit (skills and conditioned responses) and explicit ( require conscious conditioning)
Split into episodic and semantic memory.
Recall vs. recognition
Recall is being able to state previously learned facts while recognition is just being able to see them. This is the difference between a fill in the blank test and a multiple choice test.
remembering something similar to something else
cramming sucks. Better to memorize something and its retained more the longer you have in memory
State dependent memory and context effects
Remember something better depending on your mental state (high). Remmeber things better based on physical location
Serial position effect
Remember the first and last things on a list. Primacy and recency effect. After a long period of time only primacy lasts
Characterized by retrograde amnesia, brain atrophy, and and dementia. This is because of a loss of acetylcholine. Results in formation of B-amyloid plaqyes. Misfolded amyloids.
Retrograde and anterograde amnesia as well as confabulation (creating fake and elaborate memories). Caused by a thiamine deficiency in the brain.
The inability to recognize object, people, or sound.
Things that cause you to forget. Retroactive interference- old things prevent learning of new EX: new address. Proactive interference : New things lead to forgetting of old. EX: teacher learning names
incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event
source monitering effect
When people confuse semantic memory with episodic memory. EX: hearing about something happening and later recalling it as happening to them
At a younger age, kids have more neurons, so more neural connection. You can take away an entire hemisphere of the brain and the kid will be normal.
Removing weak neural connections
Strengthening long term memory through increased neurotransmitter release
Coordinate covalent bond
A bond in which one molecule donates both electrons for the bonds. Usually happen in the reaction of a p orbital with lone pairs (Lewis-Acid rxn).
Azimuthal quantum number
Yolk sac and allantolis
Yolk sac supports embryo and allantois is used for early fluid exchange before the umbelical cord replaces.
Shunts blood returning from the placenta via umbilical vein to infevior vena cava. Bypasses liver
a blood vessel in a fetus that bypasses pulmonary circulation by connecting the pulmonary artery directly to the ascending aorta
We remember things better when they relate to us
When one node of our semantic memory is activates, other linked related concepts are activated.
Maintenance rehearsal vs elaborative rehearsal
maintenance rehearsal is repetition of stuff to keep in short term memory while elaborative rehearsal uses self-reference effect to keep in long term memory.
7 membered a helices in membrane. Heterotrimeric G protein. B and gamma dimers fall off, and GTP combined. Gs stimulates adenylate cyclase ->cAMP. Gi inhibits. Gq activates phospholipase C, which activates IP3 ->Ca 2+.
What's stronger a pi bond or sigma
Signma bond is stronger, but bonds are additive so double >single
Prevents volume expansion during division
Helical structure. Makes up bone
Elastic. Can stretch and recoil
Kinesin and Dyesin
Kinesin line up chromosomes in metaphase plate, Dyneins are important in sliding movement of cilia and flagella. Kinesins move vesicles to the synaptic terminal, dyneins bring vesicles to the soma in a neuron
Receptor tyrosine kinases. Have domain for ligand binding and lead to secondary messenger pathway through phosphorylation.
Site of the fallopian tube where fertilization occurs.
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