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Science Exam Review 😭🤮
Terms in this set (81)
Diffusion of water molecules across the cell memebtane
The passive movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Some substances can pass through the cell membrane while others cannot
Process in which plant cells make food from the sun's energy
Process by which plant and animal cells convert glucose (sugar) into ATP energy to power the cell
Part of the cell membrane surrounds material in a vesicle and carries them INTO the cell to be released
Part of the cell membrane surrounds material in a vesicle and carries them OUT of the cell to be released outside
Cells that contain no nucleus and no membrane bound organelles; bacteria
Cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
The ability of living things to maintain a stable internal environment
How are osmosis and diffusion the same? How are they different?
Similarities- they both involve moving materials from an area of high concentration to low concentration without the use of energy ⚡️
Differences- osmosis is the type of diffusion which involves water; diffusion doesn't always involve water
Explain the difference between active transport and passive transport using the analogy of a bike and a hill
Active transport is like riding a bike of a hill because it requires the use of energy in involves moving materials "up or against the gradient" from low to high concentration. Passive transport is like riding a bike down a hill because it doesn't require the use of energy and involves moving materials "with the gradient" from high to low concentration
In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?
What does photosynthesis provide for the plant?
Sugar in the form of glucose which is food for the plant
In which organelle does cellular respiration take place?
What waste product does photosynthesis make that helps an animal to respirate?
Plants release oxygen as a waste product which animals breathe in
What does cellular respiration provide for plants and animals?
What waste product is cellular respiration make that helps plants photosynthesize?
Cellular respiration makes carbon dioxide which plants take in to use for photosynthesis
What three organelles do plant cells have that are different from animal cells?
- Large Vacuole
- Cell Wall
Provide an example of a stimulus and the corresponding response
Stimulus: when a doctor is checking your reaction and she hits your knee with a tool
Response: your like kicks as a response
List the characteristics of living things
-made of cells
-share similar chemicals
-take in and use energy
-sense and respond to changes in the environment
-grow and develop
What are the four needs of living things and why is each important?
•food - for energy
• Shelter - a habitat that provides a place to live
• water - necessary for all life functions
• homeostasis - maintaining stable internal environment
What are the levels of organization in order? Provide an example of each
Cell- Red blood cell
Tissue- cardiac muscle
Organ system- nervous system
Organism- frog 🐸
Who is Robert Hooke and why does he choose the name "cell" to describe what he saw in the slice of cork?
Was the father of microscopy who looked at a piece of cork and coined the term cell because the tiny boxes he saw on the cork reminded him of the monks living quarters in a monastery which are called cells
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + ATP
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
6CO₂ + 6H₂O ☀️ → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
How are the formulas related?
They are backwards of one another and they need each other to function
In eukaryotic cells, in plant cells, Function: photosynthesis uses sunlight to make sugar for the plant
And prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, in plant and animal cells, Function: support and protect the cells organelles, contain some nutrients for the cell
In eukaryotic cells, in plant and animal cells, Function: "powerhouse" of the cell, produces energy from sugar through chemical reaction
In eukaryotic cells, in plant and animal cells, Function: contains genetic material. DNA (chromosomes) which contains instructions for traits, directs the cell's activity
In eukaryotic cells, in Animal Cells: small Plant Cells: large, Function: stores water for the cell
In eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells, in animal and plant cells, Function: determines what goes in and out of the cell, protects and supports the cell
What are the three parts of the cell theory?
-cells are the basic unit of life
-cells are made from pre-existing cells
-all living things are made up of one or more cells
The structures that are located inside the cell
How do you systems of the body help to maintain homeostasis?
All of the systems work together in order for the body to maintain balance with its environment, removing waste, responding to various stimuli in the environment
What are the four types of tissue and where can each of them be found?
Epithelial- Skin, Glands
Connective- blood, bone, fat
Nervous- brain, spinal cord
Muscle- muscles, heart, organs
Provide an example of how surface area affects the function of an organ in the human body
The villi increase surface area in the small intestine for nutrient absorbed in
List one fun fact that you've learned about the human body during this unit
Stretched out, the small intestines is longer than the large intestines
What 3 structure is the integumentary system made up of?
What are the three layers of skin?
Epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis - fatty layer
List the four main functions of skin
Protection, vitamin D synthesis, sensing, temperature regulation
Describe voluntary and involuntary muscle action
Voluntary - muscles you CAN control; Involuntary - muscles you CAN'T control
What are the three types of muscle and where they found?
Smooth: Lining organs
Skeletal: muscles for movement
Describe the function of a muscle
An organ that can relax and contract, which moves your body
List the five main functions of the skeletal system
Provides shape and support to your body, movement, provide storage of calcium and phosphorus, protects internal organs, and manufacture blood cells in bone marrow
List the five types of joints
Fixed joint, pivot joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, sliding joint
Describe how the skeletal and muscular systems work together
Muscles attached to bones, when a muscle contracts, it pulls against the bone, causing the body to move
List the path that food travels through the body
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
Describe the two types of digestion
Mechanical - physical process, food is chewed, mixed and churned
Chemical - chemical process, food is turned into a mushy substance using stomach acid, bile, saliva, and other enzymes
Describe the function of the digestive system
Breaks food down into small molecules that are absorbed into the bloodstream
Describe the two types of chambers in the heart
Atrium - receives blood
Ventricle - pumps blood
Name and describe the three types of circulation
Pulmonary - pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs to release carbon dioxide and pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood back to the heart
Caronary - arteries and veins supply the heart with blood
Systemic - arteries bring oxygenated blood to body cells and veins return deoxygenated blood back to the heart
Describe how the circulatory and lymphatic systems work together
The circulatory moves blood around the body including white blood cells. The lymphatic system is responsible for collecting any fluid that leaves the blood vessels, filtering through glands, and returning it to the bloodstream. They work together to help fight disease as well
Describe the path of air as it enters the body
Nose and mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs
Describe the function of the respiratory system
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with your internal environment and the external environment
Explain the difference between respiration and cellular respiration
Respiration is the physical process of inhale/exhale, cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria when glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen and converted into ATP energy
Describe the function of the urinary/excretory system
Collects waste produced by cells and removes them from the body
Name the four major organs of the urinary/excretory system
What other organs work as excretory organs?
Liver, lungs, skin
What is the function of the endocrine system?
To create hormones which regulate various body functions
What are hormones?
Your bodies chemical messengers, they travel in your bloodstream to specific tissues or organs and work slowly
What are the functions of the 8 Endocrine glands
Pituitary- growth repair of cells, stimulates specific glands, master gland
Pancreas- lowers blood glucose levels Adrenal- fight or flight
Thymus- immune response
Testes- male sexual development
Ovaries- female sexual development
Describe the function of the nervous system
Sense and respond to changes in the internal and external environment
Name and describe the three parts of a neuron
Dendrites- delivers impulse to cell body
Cell body- contains nucleus and organelles
Axon- carries impulse away from cell body
Name and describe the two parts of the nervous system
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- all nerves that carry impulses to the rest of the body
Central nervous system (CNS)- Brain and spinal cord
The passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next
A large oval organelle inside a cell that contains the cells genetic material in the form of DNA and controls the cells activities
The genetic material that is passed on from parent to offspring and carries information about an organism
A sequence of DNA that is passed on from parent to offspring that determines a trait
The different forms of a gene
A reproduction process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
A reproduction process that involves two parents that combine their DNA to produce a new organism which differs from both parents
An allele that always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
An allele that is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present
An organisms genetic make up or allele combinations
An organisms physical appearance or visible traits
Having two different alleles for a particular gene
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene
The scientific study of heredity
The pressure of the water that's inside of the plant cell against a plant cell wall, pushing out words
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