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Astronomy Ch. 2 - The Copernican Revolution
Terms in this set (60)
The Ptolemaic model of the universe:
explained and predicted the motions of the planets with deferents and epicycles.
The most accurate Greek attempt to explain planetary motion was the model of:
The greatest contribution of the Greeks to modern thought was
the development of scientific inquiry and model building
Stonehenge is believed to be an ancient
The Ptolemaic model probably persisted for all these reasons EXCEPT:
it accounted well for Galileo's observations of the phase cycle of Venus.
The principal culture that transferred Greek astronomical knowledge to Renaissance Europe was:
On which of these assumptions do Ptolemy and Copernicus agree?
All orbits must be perfect circles.
Which was a contribution to astronomy made by Copernicus?
He laid out the order and relative motion of the known solar system.
Which of the statements below is part of both the Ptolemaic and Copernican models?
The moon orbits the Earth once a month.
Scientists today do not accept the Ptolemaic model because:
the work of Tycho and Kepler showed the heliocentric model was more accurate.
Which of the following post dark ages astronomers proposed scientific evidence for the heliocentric model of the solar system?
The heliocentric model was actually first proposed by:
Which of Galileo's discoveries provided the greatest evidence that the Sun must be at the center of the solar system?
that Venus goes through phases
Which of these was NOT a part of the original Copernican model?
Mercury speeds up at perihelion, and slows down at aphelion.
According to Copernicus, the retrograde motion for Mars must occur
at opposition, when the Earth overtakes Mars and passes between Mars and the Sun.
Which of these was NOT a telescopic discovery of Galileo?
the moons of Saturn
Which of the following was NOT a contribution of Galileo to astronomy?
The changing appearance of Saturn's rings corresponds to our seasons.
Who is considered the father of Experimental Science?
A fatal flaw with Ptolemy's model is its inability to predict the observed phases of
Mercury and Venus.
Which of the following is a contribution to astronomy made by Galileo?
all of the above
Which of Galileo's discoveries provided the greatest scientific evidence that the Sun must be at the center of the solar system?
that Venus goes through phases
Which of these observations of Galileo refuted Ptolemy's epicycles?
the complete cycle of Venus' phases
Galileo found the rotation period of the Sun was approximately
Which of these was NOT seen telescopically by Galileo?
Which concept was NOT a part of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion?
Epicycles are needed to explain the varying brightnesses of the planets.
The most famous prehistoric astronomical observatory is:
A circular orbit would have an eccentricity of
The place in a planet's orbit that is closest to the Sun is called
Kepler's first law worked, where Copernicus' original heliocentric model failed, because Kepler described the orbits as
elliptical, not circular
Upon which point do Copernicus and Kepler disagree?
The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with one focus at the Sun.
Tycho Brahe's contribution to Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion were
his detailed and accurate observations of the planet's position.
During how many portions of the planet's orbit (A, B, C, and D) would the planet be speeding up the entire time?
Only during one of the portions shown
What does Kepler's third law imply about planetary motion?
Planets further from the Sun orbit at a slower speed than planets closer to the Sun.
What contribution to astronomy was made by Tycho Brahe?
His observations of planetary motion with great accuracy proved circular orbits could not work.
According to Kepler's third law, the square of the planet's period in years is
proportional to the cube of its semimajor axis in A.U.
According to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, if the Moon were three times further from Earth, the force by Earth on the Moon would
decrease by a factor of 9.
Which of the following would cause the force on the Moon by the Earth to increase by the largest amount?
move the moon two times closer to Earth.
How does Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation explain Kepler's laws?
Universal gravitation implies that the planets further from the Sun will move more slowly than the planets closer to the Sun (Kepler's third law).
Universal gravitation implies that when a planet is closer to the Sun in its orbit, it will move faster than when it is farther from the Sun (Kepler's second law).
Which of these was a contribution of Newton to astronomy?
All of these were due to Newton's work.
Geosynchronous satellites orbit at about four Earth radii, where the Earth's gravitational pull is:
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, attempts to precisely measure the astronomical unit relied largely on rare:
transits of the inferior planets across the Sun.
Today we rely largely on what technique to precisely measure distances in the solar system?
radar echo timings
The force of gravity between two objects:
increases with the masses of the bodies, but decreases with the square of the distances between them.
The Law of Universal Gravitation was developed by:
If the distance between two asteroids is doubled, the gravitational force they exert on each other will
be one fourth as great.
How much stronger is the gravitational pull of the Sun on Earth, at 1 AU, than it is on Saturn at 10 AU?
Jupiter lies about 5 A.U. from the Sun, so at its distance:
the Sun's gravity is 25 times weaker than its pull on the Earth.
The force of gravity varies with the
product of the two masses.
inverse square of the distance separating the two bodies.
Given that the planet orbiting the nearby star 51 Pegasi is about 20x larger than Earth, but 400x more massive, on that world you weigh:
The same as you do here.
Escape velocity is the speed required to
overcome the gravitational pull of an object.
Compared to orbital velocity, escape velocity is about:
Orbit speed is the speed with which a planet moves around the Sun. This speed is determined by
the mass of both the planet and the Sun and the distance between the two.
If the Sun and its mass were suddenly to disappear, Earth would
fly off into space
An accurate sketch of Jupiter's orbit around the Sun would show
a nearly perfect circle
The center of mass of two bodies of equal mass lies
midway between the two bodies
Kepler's second law implies what about planetary motion?
A planet moves faster when it is closer to the Sun.
The orbit of two bodies with equal masses, under influence of their mutual gravity,
are identical ellipses with a common focus
According to Copernicus, retrograde motion for Venus must occur around
inferior conjunction, when it passes between us and the Sun.
Kepler's laws are said to be empirical, because they:
are predictions that could be tested by observations
Combining Newton's and Kepler's laws, we can weigh the Sun, provided we know:
the size of the A.U. and exact length of year.
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