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Zoology botany fall final study guide
Terms in this set (52)
What is the metric unit that measures volume
What is the metric unit used to measure mass
What is the metric unit that measures distance
What are the levels of taxonomy in the Linnaean system
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (DKPCOFGS)
What are the 3 domains
Bacteria, eukarya, archaea
What are the 5 classes of chordates?
Fish, amphibian, reptilia, mamilia, and aves(birds)
What are characteristics of fish
Fins, live in water, have gills, cold blooded, has scales, and lay eggs
What are characteristics of amphibia?
Cold blooded, lay eggs, are born with gills but then grow lungs and can walk on land, wet, slimy skin
What are the characteristics of reptilia
Cold blooded, scales, lay eggs, have lungs and dry skin
What are the characteristics Mamilia
Live birth, have hair, lungs, warm blooded and produce milk
What are characteristics of aves (birds)
Lay eggs, have feathers, hollow bones, warm blooded, have lungs
How did scientist group living things together?
They use appearance of the Linnaean system to group animals by similar appearance and charged DNA tests to find real ancestry (shared and physical characteristics)
List and give a brief description of each step of the scientific method
1. Ask a question
3. Make a hypothesis
4.conduct an experiment
5. Collect data
6. Analyze information
7. Report results
What is the difference between biology, zoology and botany?
Biology is the scientific study of all forms of life, zoology is the study of animals and botany is the study of plants
How are seeds dispersed by plants?
They are dispersed through animals, wind and water
How did plants adapt to life on land
Many land plants have evolved adaptations that allow them to retain moisture, transport water and other resources between plant parts, grow upright and reproduce without free standing water
Explain, in detail, the differences between monocots and dicots
Monocots-flowering plants with one cotyledon, parallel veins in long narrow leaves, flower parts occur in multiples of three, bundles of vascular tissue are scattered throughout stem.
Dicots-flowering plants with 2 cotyledons, leaves with netlike veins, flower parts occur in multiples of 4 or 5, bundles of vascular tissue arranged in rings
Compare and contrast fibrous roots and taproots, Give example of each
Fibrous roots-root system made up of threadlike members. Example of fibrous root:corn
Taproot-main root of some plants, usually larger than other roots. Example of taproot:radish
What are plants used for other than human consumption?
Medicine, clothing, shelter, economic resources and dyes
What is the purpose of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits?
Roots:bring up water, suck up nutrients, anchorage and sometimes storage
Stems: carry nutrients up, bring sugars down and bring water up
Flowers:gametes(sex cells), attract pollinators, reproduction
Fruit:end product of reproduction, protect seed
What are 3 tissue types found in plants?
Dermal, ground and vasuclar
What is dermal tissue?
The epidermis is a dermal tissue that is usually a single layer of cells covering the younger parts of a plant. It secretes a waxy layer called the cuticle that inhibits water loss
What is ground tissue
The ground tissue of plants includes all tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular. It can be divided into three types based on the nature of the cell walls.
What is vascular tissue
the tissue in higher plants that constitutes the vascular system, consisting of phloem and xylem, by which water and nutrients are conducted throughout the plant
What are 3 cell types found in plants?
Parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
What are parenchyma cells?
Most common cell, throughout the plant, has thin walls and divide throughout life
What is the collenchyma cell?
Thick or thin, flexible, elongate and often form strands
What is the sclerenchyma cell?
Strongest (lignin), dead @ maturity, rigid, can't grow with plant and is in fruit pits and nut shells
Compare and contrast xylem and phloem
Xylem carries water and nutrients from roots and phloem carries food from leaves to other parts of the plant
What are sources and sinks (hint:related to phloem)
Source are where sugars are made and stored and sinks are where sugar is deposited and used
Describe the pressure-flow hypothesis (hint:related to phloem)
It predicts how sugars are transported from photosynthesis tissue tissue to rest of a plant (sugar moves from source to sink without energy)
Describe the cohesion tension theory (hint:related to xylem)
Explains how the physical properties of water allow it to move through the xylem of plants
What are the steps of the cohesion tension theory?
1.transpiration-water leaves the leaves
2.cohesion-water sticks to the water
3.adhesion-water sticks to wall of xylem
What are leaf veins composed of?
Xylem and phloem (vascular tissue)
What is the chemical formula for water?
What is the chemical formula for oxygen?
What is the chemical formula for carbon dioxide?
What is the chemical formula for glucose?
What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Where is water broken down?
When water is broken down, what gets released into the air
Explain pollination and fertilization
Pollination-process by which seed plants become fertilized without the need for free-standing water
Fertilization-fusion of an egg and sperm cell
Explain the role of pollinators
Bring pollen from one flower to another
Explain what each macronutrient in fertilizer does for a plant
K-fruit, water, flowers
Explain what symptoms occur for deficiencies in each (NPK)
N-stunted growth, yellow leaf middle vein, twisted leaf
P-purple leaves, stunted growth
K-no fruit, yellow edges of leaf, curled leaf
Explain what parts of plant we eat. Identify what part of the plant the following foods come from (celery, asparagus, lettuce, potato, carrot, broccoli, almond and tomato
-celery, potato and asparagus are both stems
List each animal phyla and explain animals in that phylum have in common
Arthropoda-exoskeleton, molting, segmented legs and bodies
Molluska-snails, slugs, squid, octopi (diverse)
Rotifera-wheel animals, discs of cilia
Echinodermata-starfish, no head, endoskeleton
Porifera-no symmetry, sponges
List each plant phyla and explain what plant in that phyla have in common
Bryophyta-mosses, no leaves, roots and stems
Flilcinophyta-ferns, no flowers, fruits
How does pollen travel?
when birds or insects such as bees, flies, moths or butterflies try to get pollen or nectar from the plant. Flowers that are brightly colored or have a strong fragrance attract hummingbirds and insects as pollinators,
How do flowering plants reproduce?
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the production of male and female gametes, the transfer of the male gametes to the female ovules in a process called pollination. After pollination occurs, fertilization happens and the ovules grow into seeds within a fruit
What are the steps to the light reactions?
1.Light absorption & splitting of water.
2.production of ATP.
3.Movement of electrons through electron acceptors to power a hydrogen pump.
4.Re-energizing electrons so they can produce NADPH. [Dark Reactions] Slichter.
What are the steps of the Calvin cycle?
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