History Imperialism Semester 1 Finals- Waters
Terms in this set (63)
What is imperialism?
The take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economical, and social life of the people of that nation
What are motifs/reasons of imperialism?
1.) Economical Advantage- A new market to sell good as well as natural resources can be found (can use cheap labor from the natives)
2.) Geopolitical Advantages- Can be used as refilling station for navy ships
3.) Social Darwinism- The (racist) concept of spreading white genes as a believe of white people being the "fittest"
4.) Religious- The spread of Christianity
What are different forms of imperial control?
1.) Colony- The colony would be controlled by foreign officials
2.) Protectorate- A country or territory with its own internal government but under control of an outside power
3.) Sphere of influence- the surrounding area of a colonized area that can be influenced by the colonizer
4.) Economic Imperialism- Independent but less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other governments
What are examples of internal forces in a country that affects imperialism?
1.) Variety of cultures and languages
2.) Low level of technology
3.) Ethnic strife
To avoid war over Africa, what did 14 European countries do?
They congregated at the BERLIN CONFERENCE to lay down rules for the division of Africa
Which two countries had the most land on Africa?
Britain and France
What is assimilation?
an urge to make every indigenous and culture group within a state into one cultural group
Why was Nigeria so important to Britain?
Had a surplus of Oil
Where was the Ottoman Empire located?
Why was Egypt important?
It had the sues canal that connected the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea (Geopolitical Advantage)
What was the Crimean War?
It was a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Russia wanted land from the empire however neither France or Britain wanted them to lose more land so they joined the war and sided with the Ottoman Empire.
What were sepoys?
indian soldiers (also used by British government)
Why was India called the "jewel in the crown"?
It was the most valuable of all of the British colonies because it was the major supply of raw materials. It also provided for an excellent market with the mass population in India
What we're the pros and cons of British imperialism on India?
• Provided a more modern economy by building railroads
•provided more modern technology: Telephones, telegrams, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals
• sanitation and public health improved
•school were build and education was improved
• British troops end to local warfares
• British held high political and economical power which lead to dependency
• British restricted Indian-owned industries and resulted in high unemployment rate
• Disregarded Indian cultures and customs
What was the sepoy rebellion/Sepoy Mutiny?
A rebellion by Indians of Hindu and Islamic beliefs as a result of a disregard to their strict diet without pork. Enraged by having to bite off a rifle cartridge of beef and pork fat they gathered their sense of nationalism and fought back.
What happen at the outbreak of sepoy mutiny?
Those who disobeyed were jailed and the next day a group of Muslims and Hindus marched to Delhi
What countries are in the pacific rim?
Any country that boarders the Pacific Ocean
Why were Asian countries an interest for imperial powers?
They had many natural resources and tropical plants such as: Sugar Cane, Coffee, Cocoa, Rubber, Coconuts, Bananas, and Pineapple
What countries did the Dutch acquire?
The Dutch East Indies (an island chain of Indonesia containing: Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas, and Bali)
What Asian countries did the French add to their belt?
Laos, Cambodia, and Northern Vietnam (Indochina)
What is Siam known as today?
Who was king mongkut?
He was the king of Siam (modern day Thailand) who was for the progress of the country. He started schools, reformed the legal system, and reorganized the government. Government eventually built railroads, telegraph systems, and ended slavery.
How did Siam remain independent?
They had modernized
What countries did the United States acquire after the Spanish-American war?
Philippine islands, Puerto Rico, and Guam
What was an excuse for imperializing the Philippines?
It was our duty to educate the Philippines and Christianity them
Who was Emilio Aguinaldo?
the Filipino leader and nationalist who declared independence from Spain. He was promised immediate independence after the Spanish-American war however was never given independence so he fought for independence.
Why did the US want Hawaii?
To re establish an economic competitive position for sugar cane as well as the benefit of pineapples
What is annexation?
The act of adding or joining a territory to an existing one.
Who was Liliuokalani?
Queen of Hawaii as well as a Hawaiian nationalist who fought for Hawaiian independence against the US
Who was Sanford B. Dole?
A wealthy plantation owner on Hawaii of the pineapple Dole company who eventually became president of the Hawaiian republic
How did China feel about foreigners?
They hated them and looked down on them
Was China willing to imperialize?
No. When a British ambassador arrived with new technology the Qing emperor was unimpressed
Why didn't China want to imperialize?
They had already been self sufficient and had a strong economy from the production of rice which resulted in the growth of their population
What did the British sell to the Chinese to earn profits from China and why?
They sold opium to the Chinese due to the lack of goods bought by the Chinese. The opium was an addictive drug that Chinese citizens would buy from them.
What was the opium war?
A war as a result of the opium sold to the Chinese which leads to an addiction epidemic.
What was the treaty of Nanjing?
A treaty signed between the Chinese and the British after the opium war which granted Britain Hong Kong for 99 years
What was the Taiping Rebellion?
It was a revolt against the Qing Dynasty led by Hong Xiuquan
What was the Open Door Policy?
US said trade in China will be open to all nations so that we could trade in China
What was the Boxer Rebellion?
a nationalist uprising against foreigners in China lead by peasants
What did the people of the boxer rebellion do?
They left for Beijing shouting "Death to the foreign powers" and surrounded the European section of the city and kept it under siege for several months. Eventually a force of 20,000 troops stopped them (Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan, and the US)
What was the result of the boxer rebellion?
After the unsuccessful rebellion the Chinese eventually gained a sense of nationalism
How did the United States get Japan to open their trading ports?
Commodore Mathew Perry sent 4 ships into the Tokyo harbor to demonstrate the strength of the US
What was the treaty of Kanazawa?
A treaty signed by japan which would open the ports to the US
What was the Meiji Era?
A Japanese reform movement that returned power to the emperor and embraced western ideas
What country did japan colonize first?
Who wanted possession of Korea?
Japan, China, and Russia. As a result they signed a hands off treaty.
Who broke the hands off agreement?
China broke the agreement and sent troops which angered the Japanese so they sent troops as well and defeated the Chinese.
The victory shocked many and shifted the worlds balance of power and japan immediately became one of the most powerful nations in the world
Who declared war against japan after defeating the Chinese?
Russia declared war with japan for Manchuria (a region of North Korea still under Chinese rule) which resulted in the Russo-Chinese war. Eventually they decided to sign a peace treaty. The treaty of Portsmouth which forced Russia to stay out of Manchuria and to stay out of Korea
What did japan do to Korea and how we're they treated?
Japan eventually annexed Korea and treated them terribly
What are caudillos?
What was the Monroe doctrine?
Said that no European countries could take over any new nations in Latin America signed by the United States
Who was josé Martí?
A Cuban nationalist who fought for Cuban independence against Spain
What was the Spanish-American war?
A war between the Cubans and the Spanish which later involved the US when they decided to help Cuba gain their independence
What is the Panama Canal?
A canal that cuts through panama (many had died)
What is the Roosevelt Corollary?
our right to intervene in Latin American countries written by the United States
Who is Antonio López de Santa Anna?
A Mexican nationalist who fought to regain power from the Spanish who later became the president of Mexico
Who was Benito Juárez?
A poor liberal reformer of Mexico who supported the poor
What was la reforma?
A reform lead by Benito Juárez which called for redistribution of land, separation of the church and state, as well as more educational opportunities. He eventually became the president of Mexico after a fight with the French. He separated power from the church and state and set up an educational system.
Who was Porfirio Diaz?
He was Mexico's dictator who had a revolution launched against him in 1910.
Who was Francisco Madero?
A rich educated man who called for a revolt against Díaz
Who was Francisco "Pancho" Villa?
A northern cowboy who stole money from the rich and gave it to the poor
Who was Emilio Zapata?
American agrarian rebel who fought for the goals for la reforma. His phrase was often "Tierra y libertad" (land and liberty)
What happened as a result of the revolt?
Mexico created a constitution