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Chapter 1 Questions
Terms in this set (43)
Which of the following statements is true regarding evolution?
Evolution is the process of change over time that has resulted in the array of organisms found on Earth.
Which of the following is not an accurate statement about biology?
Biological inquiry is a cataloguing of all the processes and properties of life on Earth.
Which of the following is not a property associated with all living organisms?
Which of the following is an attribute of living things?
They must be capable of acquiring adaptations through evolution.
Which of the following is NOT an attribute of living things?
All living things require oxygen.
What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type occupying a defined area?
Emergent properties of living systems are properties that...
are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
Which of the following statements best describes the phenomenon of "emergence"?
The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
Which of the following systems does NOT display emergent properties?
None of the listed responses is correct.
Which of the following can best be considered a biological system?
a single liver cell, the biosphere, a pond
In an ecosystem, nutrients __________ and energy __________.
are recycled... flows through
The energy used by most organisms for metabolism and growth ultimately comes from...
Which of the following is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms?
What is the molecule that is responsible for both the unity and the diversity of life?
How is the information encoded in DNA actually used by organisms?
The information in DNA is transcribed to RNA and then usually translated into protein.
Which of the following domains is prokaryotic?
Which type of organisms within the domain Eukarya is composed of organisms that are generally unicellular (single-celled)?
Eukaryotic organisms that decompose dead organisms and absorb the nutrients are generally found in which kingdom?
Evolution tends to act at which of the following levels?
Which of the following observations and inferences led Charles Darwin to his theory of natural selection as a mechanism for evolution?
Darwin synthesized his theory of natural selection from all of the listed observations and inferences.
With evolutions as the core theme of biology, we can explain traits shared by organisms as evidence of __________ and traits that differ among organisms as evidence of __________.
descent from a common ancestor... adaptation through natural selection
Experimentation is only one part of the process of scientific inquiry, but it is a very important step because it...
allows rejection of hypotheses
Radon is a radioactive gas that seeps into homes from the soil. It is thought to be a cause of lung cancer. A research team investigates this hypothesis. The members of the team gather large amounts of data on basement radon concentrations and lung cancer rates and conclude that the more radon there is in a home, the more likely are people living in the home to develop lung cancer. After the study is published, other researchers criticize it by asserting that the studied neighborhoods with higher radon concentrations also have a higher percentage of older people and a higher percentage of cigarette smokers than the low-radon neighborhoods. Both advanced age and cigarette smoking increase the risk of lung cancer. This criticism, if correct, shows that the radon study suffered from...
Which of the following statements most clearly demonstrates inductive reasoning?
If the animals observed require organic molecules as nutrients, then it can be concluded that all animals require organic molecules as nutrients.
A team of scientists has devised a new chemical fertilizer that its members believe will increase crop yields. The team planted three garden plots with corn. The soil was similar in each, and equal amounts of water were applied to each plot. One plot was treated with a common commercial fertilizer, another was treated with the new fertilizer, and the third plot was not given any fertilizer. The experimenters measured yields as bushels of corn from each plot. The plot that did not receive fertilizer was the...
A hypothesis must be testable to be scientifically valid. Being testable and falsifiable means that...
some conceivable observation or experiment could reveal whether a given hypothesis is incorrect
At which point in a study is a scientific investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning?
in establishing a test of hypothesis
Which of the following is OUTSIDE the realm of scientific inquiry?
addressing ethical dilemmas
A company was testing a new drug it thought would help decrease the risk of transmission of viruses from mother to fetus. In an experiment to test the compound, an investigator gave 400 pregnant female rats a small dose of the experimental drug and inoculated each with a type of virus known to cause disease in rats. At the same time, 400 other pregnant rats were given only the virus. Of the rat pups born to the females that received both the virus and the drug, 197 showed no symptoms of the disease; 205 rat pups born to the virus-only females showed symptoms. From these data, we can best conclude __________. t
that the drug seems to have little effect on viral transmission at the dosage given.
The best method for determining whether bean plants require sodium is to...
grow bean plants with and without sodium.
Repetition of an experiment...
is necessary before conducting that a given set of results is correct.
Should an experiment test only one variable at a time? Why or why not?
Yes, an experiment should test only one variable at a time. This ensures that the experimental outcome is clearly due to one identifiable factor.
A scientific theory is...
a well-supported concept that has broad explanatory power.
All the organisms on your campus make-up...
Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels in life's hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual animal?
nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which Darwin's theory of natural selection is based?
Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
Systems biology is mainly an attempt to...
understand the behavior of entire biological systems.
Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because...
protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack.
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?
the structure and function of DNA
A controlled experiment is one that...
tests experimental and control groups in parallel.
Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?
Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
The fish swam in a zigzag motion.
Which of the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
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