ENGLISH (2nd Term)


Terms in this set (...)

Chinese Literature
- First Recorded about 5000 years ago
- chinese writing has no alphabet: consist of 50,000 characters
- chinese writing is made up of IDEOGRAPHS
- early chinese literature dates back to 1000 BC
Five Classics
Five books which form their cultural, political, traditional life
The Book of Changes
- Divination
- Iching
The Book of History
- Documents
- First narrative of the history of China
- has 58 chapters
The Book of Rites
- Social Norms, Government organization, ritual conduct
- complied by Kong Zi
-Li Chi
The Book of Odes
- Songs and Poetry
- Shi King
- 305 songs
- complied by Kong Zi
The Book of Spring and Autumn Annals
- Historical records
- State of Lu
3 Greatest Chinese Poets
1. Wang Wei
2. Li Po or Li Bai
3. Tu Fu
Wang Wei
- 699 - 761 BC
- a devout Buddhist
- also a musician and a master of Chinese painting
- known for his short poems describing the time he lived in his country retreat surrounded by natural landscapes
- his poems express personal view of the world
- his poems tend to convey Buddhist doctrines of tranquility, emptiness, and the sentiment concerning personal enlightenment
Li Bai (Li Po)
- 701 - 762 BC
- probably the greatest poet in Chinese History
- never took examination but was appointed to a post in the Hanlin Academy by Emperor Xuanzong
- called himself the "banished immortal", he is known for his fondness for wine and his ability to improvise poems after drinking
- characteristics of his poem
1. Creative use of earlier styles and reworking of traditional themes
2. Demonstrate an air of playfulness, hyperbole, and fantasy
- Many poems show his rapport with nature and his love of wine
- many in women's voice express women's loneliness, solitude, and helplessness caused by being abandoned
Ti Fu
- 712 - 770 BC
- born in a distinguished literary family but never passed the civil service examination after repeated attempts
- one of the greatest poets
- The single most important confucian work
- focuses on practicalities of interpersonal relationship
Lun Yu
- records the words and deeds of Confucius
- lived in the latter part of the Spring and Autumn Period (770- 479 BC)
- Born in Lu
- most famous teacher, philosopher, and political theorist, whose ideas have influenced all civilization of East Asia
- not a religious leader
Confucian politics
- hierarchical
- political system is described by analogy with the family
5 Key Confucian Relationship
1. Father and Son -
2. Husband and Wife
3. Older and Younger
4. Friend and Friend
5. Ruler and Subject
Father and Son
Father- kind
Son- obedience
Husband and Wife
Husband- Gentility and Righteous
Wife- Obedience
Older and Younger
Older- considerate
Younger- respect and deference
Friend and Friend
Ruler and Subject
Subject- loyalty
Ruler- capable and strong
- to say the same thing in another way, using your own words
- using a combination of techniques
Change from a clause to a phrase
Independent clause- can stand alone/ sentence
Dependent clause- cannot stand alone
Clause- has a noun and a verb
- After he studied, John took a nap.
After studying, John took a nap.
Change from quotes speech to indirect speech
- Mr. Lee said" I am ready for lunch"
Mr. Lee said he was ready for lunch.
Change from active to passive or vice versa
Active- Doer, Verb, Object
Passive- Object, Verb, Doer
Change word forms
- use an adverb instead of an adjective
- use a verb to replace a noun
- Grog is an accurate typist.
Grog types accurately.
Change to synonyms
- replace the original words with words that mean the same
- replace the original word with a definition
Lao Tzu
"Old Sage"
- scholars place his birth between 600 and 300 BCE
- wanted his philosophy to remain a natural way to live life with goodness, serenity, and respect
- he encouraged his followers to observe and seek to understand the laws of nature; to develop intuition and build up personal power; and to use that power to lead life with love and without force
- a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao.
- one of the greatest and oldest philosophies of China
Tao Chia
Taoism as a philosophy
Tao Chiao
Taoism as a religion
- the central vehicle of achieving peacefulness was the Tao, a term which has been translated as 'the way' or 'the path'

Stand before it- there is no beginning. Follow it and there is no end. Stay with the Tao, move with the present. - Lao Tzu

Yin- black
Yang- white
Tao Te Ching
- a collection of sayings describing the principal taoist teaching.
- teaches people the idea of balance or equality and how an individual can achieve this
- filled with paradox
A paradoxical statement is self contradicting, still possibly true. It takes you a while to get a grip on such statements, even though it stares right at you.
Symbol that represents Taoism
A traditional saying expressing a common experience or observation; proverb
Korean Literature
Was greatly influenced by these religions that were introduces to them for the past centuries:
1. Shamanism
2 Buddhism
3. Confucianism
4. Taoism
5. Christianity
Korean Shamanism
- good and evil worlds
- deep roots in folk beliefs
- related to ancient communal worship rites offered to god of heaven.
- seeks to resolve human problems through meeting of humans and spirits mediated by the shaman.
- animism
Korean Buddhism
- introduced
Korean Confucianism
- Joseon dynasty promoted confucian philosophies as national philosophy
- intellectual achievement
- 'Proper' social structure
Korean Taoism
- introduced to Korea from China during the Three Kingdoms
- greatest popularity during Goryeo
- remains a minor but significant element of Korean thought and integrates with animism
Korean Christianity
- Catholicism imported onto Korea by the Korean scholar, Yi Seung- hun, who was baptized while visiting China.
- protestant missionaries came during Japanese rule in early 20th century
- Catholics and Protestants live in urban areas and often have higher education levels
Korean systems of languages
- Hyangch'al
- Chinese
- Hangul
Classical Poetry
1. Hyangga
2. Koryo Kasa
3. Sijo
4. Joseon Kasa
5. Pansori
Classical Prose
Their prose includes vernacular and literary Chinese
Tales of Kumo
By Kim Shi-sup in the mid 15th century
The tale of Hong Gildong
By Hyo Kyun in the late 16th or early 17th century
- a traditional Korean Musical art form
- "Pan" which refers to the place where people gather or events happen and "sori" which means song
- emerged as a reaction to the aristocratic belief that music is only for the elite
- became accessible to commoners and aristocrats
- UNESCO recognized it as a Masterpiece of The Oral And Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Pansori - singer
Pansori- drummer
- oldest
- stories are spiritual in nature (ghosts, demons, possessions)
- masks are worn
- audience is aristocratic/"upperclass"
- accompanied by music/ "chorus"
- usually performed as interludes between the noh plays
- characters enact situation of universal comic effect as well as realistic satires of feudal life
- adapted from European and American theater
- means new theater
- earliest groups:
1. Bungei Kyokai (Literary Society) in 1906
2. Jiyu Gekijo (Free Theater) in 1909
- stories are based on folklore and history
- started by women who engaged in prostitution
- highly styled makeup
- appeals to middle class audience that often yells during performance
- elaborate sets, often using special effects
- extensive use of props, especially the fan
- accompanied by music
- OMNAGATA: males performing as females
- combination of song, dance, musical
Contemporary Influence of Kabuki and Noh
- Japanese anime (cartoons) ang manga (comic books)
- costume/ makeup design for modern movies (such as star wars)
- the art of picture story telling
- literally "paper drama"
- picture storytelling (9th- 10th century). Used by priests to convey Buddhist doctrine to illiterate audiences
Poor man's theater
1903, Japan suffered from an economic depression
- offered an opportunity for artists and storytellers
- source of entertainment

1950s and the advent of television
- denki kamishibai," electric kamishibai"
- but as Japan became increasingly affluent, Kamishibai became associated with poverty and backwardness
- eventually DISAPPEARED
Kamishibai Now
- Manga (comic books) and later games
- used for educational purposes
- to feel the nostalgia for the old street performances
- are found at various outdoor events and festivals