38 terms

Arch & Society Final

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definition of architecture
physical embodiment of who we are as individuals and who we are collectively as a culture
*we shape our buildings, thereafter our buildings shape us
*we are affected by architecture subconsciously
4 things that shape arch values
PERSONALITY
CURRENT TIME
EXPERIENCE
BELIEFS
Hugo Haering values
-democracy(society depends on individuals)
-nature is mans great teacher
-design is an emotional/spiritual process
-beauty is relative
-each building should be unique
-function is the most important parameter
-expression is second most important parameter and should depict function
mies van der rohe values
-society depends on institutions
-collective knowledge is mans great teacher
-design is rational process (logic)
-beauty is universal
-arch characteristics can be broadly applied
-arch should express spirit of its age
-structure and construction are inspiration of design
-less is more
albert speer values
- society depends on its leaders
-fate is great determiner of human destiny
-arch is means to communicate
-each building type should have different character
-wonder/awe/drama are important
-arch is ticket to immortality
-arch is a tool for greatness
vitruvian triad
FIRMNESS (physical considerations)
COMMODITY (human factors/function)
DELIGHT (form)
different philosophies of beauty
*General Society view: beauty is a way of designating success/prestige; "status currency"
*Suger- (french philosopher): advocated for money to be spent on beauty for religious buildings; use senses to determine beauty
12 elements of form
Balance
Color
Light
Line
Material
Proportion
Rhythm
Scale
Shape
Space
Symmetry
Texture
Form building examples
*Chartres Cathedral: asymmetrical; balanced without symmetry; intricate texture and carvings; rhythm created by strong repetitive elements; scale-huge building in small city (relates to religion); color from stained glass

*chateau, vaux-le-vicomte, france: perfect symmetry; immaculate landscaping and details; strong and different used of scale

*Taj Mahal, shah jahan: great symmetry and proportion; bold shapes; white marble allows for color to be reflected; huge scale from afar, details human sized; dramatic use of light

*Le Corb Ronchamps chapel: powerful and diverse changing shape and line; crude exterior texture; unique use of space and light/shadows; different "staccato" rhythm

*Sydney Opera House - jorn Utzon: prominent scale (symbol of australia); powerful shape; rhythm of sails
st ignatious chapel
steven holl
-concept of light/dark
-7 BOTTLES OF LIGHT (underlying structure)
(procession- light from above; fellowship- normal window; baptistery- more intimate light; altar- dramatic yellow; communion- dark orange, intense; confessional- quiet; choir)
museum of contemporary art of the XXI century
kazuyo sejima
-circle to draw people in
- other geometry within circle
- vines around circumference
jewish museum
daniel liebeskind
- mirror jewish experience in germany
- tunnels: confusing, disorienting, unpredictable
- form to create uncertain experience
craft
*key to beauty in anything
3 Parts of Craft
- ECONOMY: efficient and simple
- COMPLEXITY: richness, nuance, depth
- POTENCY: Has an effect/impact
la tourette
le corb:
- monastery
-stone and concrete wall crafted to create a more fluid and lyrical wall
-floating- separate from environment
-not meant for social interaction, comfort or pleasure
-one place that differs is the chapel (color, sounds drama, emotion
santiago calatrava
- background in art, architecture and engineering in spain
- furniture sketches based of structure and function of human body and fish
- ernsting warehouse: metal skin corrugations create complexity; burved bifold doors
-lots of bridges and buildings that have curves and look like skeletons
- also things that look like wings and flying birds
- Milwaukee art museum- like bird on lake, "wings" can change to let light in; springs out toward water
sea ranch condos
- buildings on rocky, scenic coastline
- buildings respond to harsh windy environment
- buildings are "wooden rocks" with robust framing
buildings that respond to their environments
- mountain villages in southern china
-monte Alban (oaxaca, Mexico)
-acoma (NM)
-mont st michel
-falling water: FLW
-Sea Ranch
-Taliesin west-flw-az
4 forces acting on a building
tension
compression
bending
shear
baker house
alvar aalto
-proximity determines friends
-each room has view
-community spaces have lots of light
-larger building broken into smaller communities
humanism
-focus on human beings
-asserts dignity of mankind
-capacity for self realization

*simple construction
*sensible materials
*practical
*clean
*absence of pretension
examples of humanism at a personal scale
-canterbury village (NH): versatile and simple houses
-gamble house: recycled and local materials
-baker house (aalto)
-villa mairea (aalto)
-exeter library (khan)- very functional library space
-PAIMO SANATORIUM (aalto): gives patients sunlight; colors for horizontal ppl; ventilation doesnt blow on patient
-Viipuri library (aalto)- diffused light
-resurrection chapel (erik bryggman)-funeral chapel with glass facade looking out into the forest: design sensitive to mourning people
humanism at the scale of neighborhoods
-convenience
-accommodation of a range of activities
-accommodation of a range of people
-sense of human presence
-personal/human scale
-variety of visual experience concurrent with some harmony
-freedom from intrusion or distraction
-periodic natural relief
examples of humanism at the scale of neighborhoods
-kresge college (charles moore): mixed use village with range of activities
-byker-england (ralph erskine): rebuilding of neighborhood without disrupting residents' lives; variety for many different types of residents
-tapiola new town, finland: new humanistic city, many people accommodated
-san antonio riverwalk
-millennium park/crown fountain (chicago): multiuse space; convenient location; human face exhibit
3 ways communication works
LITERAL DIRECT - recognize an image and focus on that
LITERAL INDIRECT - image that symbolizes something else
ABSTRACT - color, light, shape, other qualities that may communicate something
example of literal direct communication
-hindu temples in Kajuraho, india: depict parts of hinduism on building
example of literal indirect communication
- university of virginia -TJ: main building resembles pantheon; communicates unity, power, permanence
-doge's palace (venice): tower marks center of city; focal balconies to make announcements; arcade- public space below; courtyard for different engagements; stairs up to where decisions are made
-campidoglio (rome): use of tower/balcony/stairs to convey similar meaning
-stockholm town hall: another town hall which uses same elements
-boston city hall
examples of abstract communication
-st mary's church: white for purity; stained glass for colored light; delicate details
-lbj library (SOM): conveys powerful message about president; shape and space convey importance
-jewish museum (liebeskind): qualities convey jewish experience
john hancock building (boston)
IM PEI:
-minimalist thin trapezoid
-shimmery blue
-inside isnt functional
-lacks humanism
-scale too large a contrast from surrounding buildings
-doesnt respond to sun
-problematic for surrounding buildings
ayub hospital
Louis Khan
-nice geometry; series of circles and light
-spent too much money on porch and got 1/2 as many beds as expected
-many rooms dont have windows
-porch traps heat
housing in la defence
emilie aillard
-rich paris suburb
-striking and playful form
-most people living there are low income immigrants
-tiny oddly shaped rooms
-no humanization on ground level
history faculty (cambridge)
james stirling
-great in terms of function and layout
-glass hard to maintain
-uv rays bad for books
-leaks in the glass
-sticks out against surrounding buildings
medical faculty- university of louvain
lucien kroll
-tried to please too many people
-satisfied people's wants but looks like a hot mess
-too many different materials
kresge auditorium
eero saarinen
-impressive thin shelled concrete dome
-very innovative with material
-not great in terms of form
-doors let in cold
-no fly loft for theatre
-dome shape terrible for acoustics
centre pompidou
piano and rogers
- hard to navigate
-exterior had to be redone
-doesn't fit in
modern ideas vs postmodern ideas
MODERN (up to 2000)
-truth
-orderly
-idealism
-rational
POSTMODERN (2000+)
-accepting of belief
-relativism
-complex
-emotional
deYoung museum
herzog and demuron
-brige between formal park and nature
-matches rolls of landscape
- tower gives view of san fran and gets more ppl to museum; separates viewing from admin
-shape resists forces from earthquakes
-beautiful piece of sculpture
- copper skin of building used for form and color
thermal baths
peter zumthor
-grows out of mountain;
-view of alps
-integrated with earth for thermal stability, less damage to ecology
-very sensuous experience
block building (kc museum of art)
steven holl
-series of small pavillions popping out of ground
-light and delicate, as to not be obtrusive
-glow like lanterns at night
-building with nature