the area under the curve (hint) which represents OVERALL drug exposure. Element of oral absorption
may enhance absorption and may decrease adverse drug events. Important element in antibiotic dosing (what is _____)
with or without
the following medications can be taken ? food: Sulfadrugs, Flouroquinilones, Penicillin VK, Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefaclor, Cefixime, Cefprozil, Ketoconazole, Erythromycin, Biaxin, Acyclovir, Isoniazid
the following medications are taken ? food, cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime, cefditoren, Clarithromycin, Rifapentine, Itraconazole, Tinidazole, Valganciclovir, Ritonavir, Saquinavir
the following medications are take ? food, Dicloxacillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, ceftibuten, Erythromycin base/stearate, itraconazole, voriconazole, Rifampin, Doxycycline, Minocycline
the following agents are available as ? agents. Gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, amikacin.
in the following populations, absorption is (increased/decreased) after IM administration. Little people and patients with long standing diabetes mellitus.
in general, patients sick enough to be admitted to the hospital will receive antibiotics via the ? route
when choosing an antibiotic to treat an infection choose the antimicrobial agent which achieves the highest ? ? at the SITE OF INFECTION (very important in endocarditis, lung-pneumonia, UTI, CNS)
to treat ? you would use cephalosporins and penicillins that penetrate the CNS in therapeutic concentrations.
THIRD generation Cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime and FOURTH generations Cefepime are used to treat ......
third and fourth
which two generations of cephalosporins are used to treat meningitis?
when normal, meningal levels of ? are very low, however inflammation increases penetration into the CNS. DO NOT DECREASE THE DOSE AS PATIENT IMPROVES. Penetration decreases as inflammation decreases
these drugs have the BEST meningal penetration (oxacillin, nafcillin)
CARBAPENEMS such as MEROPENEM are used to treat meningitis but imipenem has an increased incidence of ? and is NOT approved for the treatment of meningitis
penetration is increased with inflammation (similar action to penicillin) in treatment of meningitis (v______)
antifungal which is effective in LOW concentrations in combination therapy in the treatment of meningitis with FLUCYTOSINE and Fluconazole
the following drugs can be used to treat ?, 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, penicillin, vancomycin, metronidazole, bactrim, and combo ampho b+flucytosine/fluconazole
antibiotic in which oral levels are similar to that of IV
the following antibiotics have ? ? into the cns and are NOT used for meningitis: Clindamycin, (Aminoglycosides EXCEPT IN NEWBORNS), FIRST generation cephalosporin cephalexin, Zyvox (linezolid), and KETOCONAZOLE/ITRACONAZOLE
To treat a ? you would use the following drugs: Aminoglycosides ampicillin Cephalosporins Sulfonamides Flouroquinilones vancomycin due to their high urine concentrations
you would NEVER treat a ? with the following drugs Clindamycin Chloramphenicol Minocycline due to LOW urine concentrations
the following drugs distribute to the ?, TRIMETHOPRIM and FLOUROQUINOLONES
pumps medications out the organ, most commonly seen in the brain
73% eliminated by the liver, 27% kidney, semisynthetic penicillin. Use in caution if both liver and kidney function are abnormal. Very high blood levels could result in seizures.
54% eliminated by the liver and 46% by the kidney, use caution with liver and kidney abnormalities. Semisynthetic pen. least dependent on renal function for elimination dosage DOES NOT need to be adjusted in RENAL failure if LIVER FUNCTION IS NORMAL! use caution in hepatic/renal failure.
44% metabolized by the liver and 56% eliminated in the (kidney) urine. Patient could develop seizures due to renal failure. (C______one)
metabolized in the liver to a metabolite MORE active that the parent compound (C________)
is used to treat HSV I and II, and is metabolized in the liver to the active form PENCICLOVIR
metabolism and elimination by CYP450 liver enzyme. Antifungal (V_______)
the following drugs are eliminated by both CYP450 and ?. Erythromycin Biaxin (Clarithryomycin) Ketoconazole Maraviroc and should be used in caution with patient on digoxin
series of molecules that pump molecules OUT of organs in the body. mainly found in the CNS (brain). It is located in the KIDNEY, LIVER, GI, and BRAIN.
increases the ABSORPTION OF DIGOXIN by inhibiting the pump on the GI tract and toxicity may occur. (similar inhibition as ketoconazole)
is a potent inhibitor of P-gly and should never be dosed with Biaxin or Erythromycin or digoxin (K______)
if the ? is a major route of elimination, you will need to adjust the dose based on function using BUN and CrCL or an increas in adverse events may occur
is a drug to treat gout, but blocks the tubular secretion of drugs eliminated by this route.
sulfonamides and penicillin G are all elimated by GFR and _____ s________
This antiviral medication MUST be given with probenecid to reduce nephrotoxicity. Inhibiting tubular secretion will keep ? in the urine and out of the blood at toxic levels (along with fluid treatments)
the major route of elimination for the following: Ceftazidime Cefixime Vancomycin Aminoglycosides Aztreonam Ethambutol Pyrazinamide Flucytosine
diffuses across the small bowel wall in the lumen where it is chelated by and eliminated by poo.
ELIMINATION LEAST AFFECTED BY THE DEGREE OF KIDNEY FUNCTION! Can be give safely in patients with kidney failure. Eliminated by the fecal route
Mostly eliminated in the GI tract and used in combination with other antibiotics for staph infection and in TB
amphotercin B has an elimination route that is mostly in ______. Also renal, causes acute renal failure or some degree of renal failure in patients