APES Chapter 8
Terms in this set (23)
How are the elements on Earth distributed?
The most dense elements are in the center, called the core.
How old is Earth?
4.6 billion years
Earth's lithosphere includes
all of the crust.
Magma circulates in convection cells in Earth's
Which provided evidence for the change in continent location over time?
Identical rock formations were found on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
The European continent and North America are moving away from each other at a rate of 36 mm/year. Which most closely approximates how much farther apart the continents were in 2010 than when Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic in 1492?
Select the correct rock type connected with its mode of origin.
Igneous: liquid magma
Granitic rock is the dominant rock type
in continental crust.
Fossils, formed from plant or animal remains, are found in
I. sedimentary rock.
II. metamorphic rock.
III. igneous rock
Which is NOT a characteristic of metamorphic rocks?
They are formed by compression by overlying sediments.
Plant roots cause
both physical and chemical weathering.
Which chemical reaction is involved in the creation of acid precipitation?
I. Sulfur dioxide and water vapor combine to create sulfuric acid.
II. Hydrogen and chlorine combine to create hydrochloric acid.
III. Sulfur and oxygen combine to create sulfur dioxide.
I and III
Topsoil is the
Select the correct order of physical size of sediment particles from largest to smallest.
Sand, silt, clay
The porosity of soil is a measure of
how quickly it drains.
The soil that is best for growing most plants is composed of
a mixture of sand, silt, and clay that promotes water drainage and retention.
The infiltration of pollutants into groundwater
is common in areas with sandy soils because water flows through these soils easily.
Which material is best as a liner for a landfill?
Base saturation of soil is a measure of the
proportion of soil bases to acids.
Soil degradation is caused by
compaction from heavy machinery.
Which four elements make up more than 88 percent of Earth's crust?
Oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron
is a form of surface mining in which strips of soil and rock are removed to expose ore.
Which legislation mandates that land should be minimally disturbed during the mining process and reclaimed after mining is completed?
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977