a, b, c. A pain assessment should include definition of pain location, intensity, quality, temporal pattern, and associated characteristics. Statements A, B, and C describe intensity, quality, and temporal pattern. Statement D looks at interventions, and although appropriate at a later point, this is not part of the pain assessment. (NREM)is called "deep" sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS), or delta sleep after characteristic large amplitude EEG waves
- constitutes approximately 20% of a night's sleep in young adults, but by the 4th decade, SWS is reduced to as little as 5%.
-During SWS, muscles are relaxed, but muscle tone is maintained; respirations are even; and blood pressure, pulse, temperature, urine formation, oxygen consumption, and swallowing are decreased.
-Validate with the patient whether he or she perceives that getting adequate sleep and rest is a problem. If a problem is identified, determine whether it is chronic or situational, what has helped, and what has made it worse.
-Direct questions toward elaboration of the presenting concern; for example, if the person is concerned about daytime sleepiness,
-inquire about a history of snoring, awakenings accompanied by gasping, apneic periods that the sleeping partner may have observed, restlessness, and impact on activities associated with work, driving, and social interactions.