63% - Bicarbonate (HCO3)
21% - Carbamino Hb
5% - Dissolved CO2
What are three ways CO2 is transported in the blood?
5% - Bicarbonate (HCO3)
5% - Dissolved CO2
1% - Bound to protein (Carbamino compound)
What are three ways CO2 is transported in the plasma?
unloads more O2 at the same PO2
What is the effect of shifting the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve to the right?
The fact that oxygenated blood enhances the unloading of CO2 from the tissues is called?
Chemical buffers, which responds within seconds
What is the body's first line of defense in regulating body pH?
Respiratory system, which responds within 1 to 3 minutes
What is the body's second line of defense in regulating body pH?
Renal system, which requires a day or more to respond
What is the body's third line of defense in regulating body pH?
pH = 6.1 + log(HCO3/H2CO3)
(6.1 is the pk value of H2CO3-Carbonic Acid)
H2CO3 = Pco2 * .03
What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation?
The ratio of HCO3- (bicarbonate) to H2CO3 (carbonic acid) is 20:1 (normal value)
What is the normal HCO3- to H2CO3 blood plasma ratio?
Used to determine if a patient's metabolic acidosis is caused by either (1) the accumulation of fixed acids, or (2) by an excessive loss of HCO3-.
Anion gap = [Na+] - ([Cl-] + [HCO3-])
Normal aniion gap range is 9 to 14 mEq/L
If greater than 14 then metabolic acidosis
if less than 9 then metabolic alkalosis
What is the anion gap?
Metabolic acidosis caused by a decreased HCO3- loss as a result of something like renal disease or severe diarrhea.
What is hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis?
greater than 7.4, Alkalosis, less than 7.4 Acidosis
Respiratory acidosis, CO2 greater 45
Respiratory alkalosis, CO2 less 35
Metabolic acidosis, HCO3- less 22
Metabolic alkalosis, HCO3- greater 28
3-Check for Compensation
Respiratory if CO2 less 35?????????
Metabolic if HCO3- ???????
If within normal range then fully compensated
How to tell respiratory or metabolic acidosis/alkalosis