80 terms

Geography

geography
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volcano
mountain or hill created as liquid ash erupt from inside the earth
valley
area of land (low) between hills or mountains
upstream
direction opposite the flow of the river; toward its source
tributary
small river of stream that flows into a larger river/stream; a branch of the stream
strait
narrow stretch of water joining two larger bodies of water
source
(of a river) place where a river or stream begins often in highlands
sound
broad inland body of water often between a coastline and one or more islands off the coast
sea coast
land lying next to a sea or ocean
sea
large body of water completely or partly surrounded by land
river
large natural stream of water that runs through the land
relief
changes in elevation over a given area of land
prime meridian
line of the global grid running from the north pole to the south pole at Greenwich England; starting point for measuring east and west longitude
plateau
area of flat or rolling land at a high elevation about 300-3000 feet high
plain
area of level land, usually at low elevation and often covered with grass
physical feature
characteristic of a place occurring naturally such as a land form, body of water, climate pattern, or resouce
penninsula
body of land jutting into a lake or ocean surrounded on 3 sides by water
parallel
one of the many lines on the global grid that circles the earth north or south of the equator; used to measure degrees of latitude
ocean current
stream of either cold or warm water that moves in a definite direction through an ocean
ocean
one of the four major bodies of salt water that surround the continents
mouth
(of a river) place where a stream or river flows into a larger body of water
mountain range
a series of connected mountains
mountain peak
pointed top of a mountain
mountain
land with steep sides that rises sharply (1,000 feet or more) from surrounding land; larger than a hill.
mesa
broad, flat topped land form with steep sides, smaller then a plateau
meridian
one of the many lines one the global grid running from the north pole to the south pole; used to measure degrees in longitude
map
drawing of the earth shown on a flat surface
lowland
land, usually level, at a low elevation
longitude
distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees
latitude
distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees
lake
a sizable inland body of water
isthmus
narrow stretch of land connecting two larger land areas
island
land area, smaller then a continent, completely surrounded by water
hill
elevated land with sloping sides and a rounded summit; generally smaller then a mtn
highland
elevated land area such as a hill, mtn, or plateau
harbor
a sheltered place along a shoreline where ships can anchor safely
gulf
part of a large body of water that extends into a shoreline; larger then a bay
glacier
large thick body of slowly moving ice
equator
imaginary line that runs around the earth halfway between the north and south poles; used as a starting point to measure degrees of north and south latitude
elevation
height of land above sea level
downstream
direction in which a river or stream flows from its source to its mouth
divide
stretch of highland that separates river systems
delta
flat, low lying land built up from soil carried downstream by river and deposited at its mouth
continent
one of the seven large landmasses on earth
cliff
steep high wall of rock, earth, or ice
channel
wide strait or waterway between two land masses that lie close to each other; deep part of a river or other waterway
cape
point of land that extends into a river, lake or ocean
canyon
deep, narrow valley with steep walls
bay
part of a large body of water that extends into a shoreline, smaller then a gulf
basin
area of land drained by a given river and its branches, area of land surrounded by lands of higher elevation
absolute location
exact location of a place on earth described by global coordinates
cartographer
a mapmaker
cartography
the science of mapmaking
ecosystem
the complex community of interdependent living things in a given environment
formal region
a region defined by a common characteristic, such as production of a product
functional region
a central point and the surrounding territory linked to it
Geographic Information System (GIS)
computer tools for processing and organizing details and satellite images with other pieces of information
grid system
pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another
hemisphere
half of a sphere or globe
human-environment interaction
the study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment
human geography
also called cultural geography; the study of human activities and their relationship to the cultural and physical environments
location
a specific place on earth
meteorology
the study of weather and weather forecasting
movement
ongoing movement of people, goods, and ideas
perceptual region
a region defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data
physical geography
the study of earth's physical features
place
a particular space with physical and human meaning
regions
places united by specific characteristics
relative location
location in relation to other places
special purpose maps
maps that emphasize a single idea or a particular kind of information about an area
Cylindrical Projection
based on the projection of the globe into a cylinder. most accurate near the equator, but shapes and distances are distorted near the poles
conic projection
comes from placing a cone over part of the globe. best suited for showing limited east-west areas that are not far from the equator
Planar Projection
shows the earth centered in such a way that a straight line coming from the center to any other point represents the shortest distance, often used for maps of the poles
intermediate direction
ex: northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest etc
key
a list that explains what the symbols stand for
compass rose
a marker that indicates the 4 cardinal directions
scale bar
shows the relationship between map measurements and actual measurements
physical map
shows the location and the topography, or shape of the earth's physical features
political map
shows the boundaries between countries
cardinal directions
north, south, east, west
map projection
cartographers project the round earth onto a flat surface