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AP World History Time Period 3
Terms in this set (67)
Began in Han Dynasty extending from China to Europe/Mediterranean; Spread technology and spread Islam and Buddhism; Revived during Mongol reign of China and was how the Black Plague spread. Revived because trade was valued due to nomad status
Indian Ocean Trade Routes
Post China silk road, was brought about because Europe had new maritime technology; Connected India to China to Africa to trade gold, spices, cloths, slaves; spread Islam and Bhuddism, enabled new monasteries on port cities
Transported Gold, Salt, slaves, and other goods between N. Africa; used camels and caravans
People associated with "Black Africa"; a language and culture that spread throughout Africa and subsequently created various versions of the same language
(202 BCE-220 CE) Began Silk Road Trade. This dynasty was a time of prosperity that continued the centralization of the Qin Dynasty, but focused on Confucianism and education instead of Legalism. Ditched harsh ruling and introduced the civil exam rather than by family line, introducing merit
(589-618 CE) The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, rebuilt Great Wall, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China; extremely harsh rule
(618-907 CE) The Chinese dynasty that was much like the Han, who used Confucianism. This dynasty had the equal-field system, a bureaucracy based on merit, and a Confucian education system; more freedom for women
(960-1279 CE) Emphasis on Arts rather than military. Many advances in medicines, science, and technology. China became much more influential to other countries. Inventions such as magnetic compass and Navy. Started binding feet.
Created after fall of Rome. Eastern portion became Byzantine with centralized rule under Constantine I/Justinian, while West became divided city-states. Adopted Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which they spread to Russia after Great Schism. Ottoman's finally conquered it after many attempts.
Islamic states that are ruled by a caliph.
(661-750 CE) Mu'awiya was the ruler, adopted Byzantine financial systems; start of Islamic architecture, Arabic language as cultural language, split of Islam and diversity of beliefs; women had more rights, were more educated; system of checks and letters with value for economy; capital moved from Mecca to Demascus; agricultural innovations diffused through conquest
(750-945 CE) Persian peninsula, Baghdad, Mecca; rose when people were dissatisfied with Umayyad rulers; culture and intellectual learning was valued, universities were established, encouraged rational thought; women had few rights; caliphs were on top, outsiders were treated very well; center of world trade system
Northern nomadic tribes that threatened Chinese rule. They successfully conquered China under Genghis Khan rule and became a huge empire that linked western and eastern Eurasia. They practiced moving newly conquered people around the empire and moved some skilled workers to areas that they needed them. Tolerant of various religions.
The four regions run by different Mongol generals/knights that formed to avoid arguments after the death of Genghis Kahn. These split the Mongolian Kingdom
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
Central America; very fertile land, good for game and agriculture, however they had no domesticable animals and started off poor; strong military, able to conquer many towns who all had to pay tribute; very harsh rule, assigned stewards in towns to be governors; profited from trade with nearby towns; used captives and slaves for human sacrifice, religion was imposed on all conquered people and was very important to society, with many rituals and customs. Built capital in the middle of lake Texcoco; Chinampas were floating plants
A civilization located in the Andes in Peru, had political labor requirements called mit'a and dispersed conquered peoples. Due to the North-South empire, they had officials that assisted the emperor in keeping order.
Trade routes in the Mediterranean allowed for the civilizations of the Near East to connect by trade through growth, advancement of technology, cultural diffusion, economic development, and relations; developed mainly for goods that were not available locally
Americas had no stable trade route; however, there was a main network of trade in Mesoamerica and the Andes to exchange goods and ideas; no official trade route developed because of a lack of domesticable animals and geographical/environmental obstacles.
Polynesian islands were populated, leading the a spread of agricultural knowledge.
States that gained wealth from being central in the Indian Ocean trade routes, played very big role in trade route, traded iron, gold, ivory, slaves, and exotic animals; mixture of Arabic and Bantu languages; Islam was the main religion, used to enforce rule; cultural diffusion.
City in southwest India, very crucial to trade.
In Iraq, capital of the Abbasid dynasty.
In Valley of Mexico on Lake Texcoco; Aztec empire's capital and religious center. Big city of trade.
Used to trade; a group of wagons, mules, camels, etc.. that travelled together.
Linked North and South China, completed by the Sui Dynasty; built to link different parts of China and make it easier to import and export goods. Made reason not to continue sea voyages
League was formed to encourage trade in Medieval Europe; mainly formed as commercial alliances.
Founded Islam, the Prophet; Able to develop a strong following of his beliefs, leading Islam to be one of the most influential religions in the world.
A religion created in the third time period; Based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed; Stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell; Followers are called Muslim
The relligious teachings, divine revelations from Prophet Muhammad, and book of prophecies for Muslims—the sacred text of Islam as revealed by God the to prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina.
Pillars of Islam
Profession of faith
Pray 5 times a day
Paying alms to benefit needy and poor
Fasting during Ramadan
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Islamic law based off of the Qur'an and the teaches of Muhammad.
The Islamic community.
A religion that developed in India; a blend of Islamic and Hindu ideals.
(1304-1369) Morrocan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. His writings gave a glimpse into the world of that time period.
Italian explorer and author who made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys, responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
Communities of people who were forced out of their original land, and dispersed over new areas. The Jews were examples of Diaspora peoples because they were often forced off of their land because of their religion.
Attempt to create more rationalist form of Confucianism during Tang Dynasty. Prominent during Song and Ming dynasties. Basically revitalization of Confucianism in response to the growing religion of Islam in Eurasia.
A deadly plague made up of the Bubonic plague, Pneumonic Plague, and Septemic plague, that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351. Killed 1/3 to 1/2 of the total population of Europe.
Expanse of the world of Islam; Iberian peninsula to southeast Asia
A Chinese system that requires foreigners to pay tribute to China in order to participate in trade; came from ideas of superiority; used to prevent northern nomads from invading; Tribute system in practice and in theory;
In 1206, conquests of Islam in which India was conquered and Turkic rule of India was oppressive Buddhism and Hinduism. Brought Islamic influence to India.
Series of Holy Wars in 1095; Conflicted beliefs about its purpose and effects. Goal was to spread Christianity through introduction and resulted in war, death, and massacres.
Floating "gardens" in lake Texcoco by the Aztecs. No irrigation needed because the gardens got water directly from the lake. Provided a sustainable food crop in an otherwise non-farmable place.
Organized group of workers who all have the same job. Organized to maintain standards and to protect interests of members.
Ghana accepted Islam and linked itself to Muslim trading partners and routes.
Another place that accepted Islam, linking themselves to Muslim trading partners and routes.
Another place that accepted Islam, linking themselves to Muslim trading partners and routes.
State that grew into a large, structured trade city. Capitol and focused on trade of gold and slaves.
First dynasty to politically unify the Korean peninsula
Sisters that led a peasant rebellion in Vietnam and successfully resisted China's Confucian rule over Vietnam. They led a successful autonomous state for three years before the Chinese army attacked and attempted to win back their state.
Japanese warrior code-death over dishonor
Started the Sui Dynasty; completed the Grand Canal and built Buddhist monasteries
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading
The capital of the Byzantine empire. Center for wealth and fortune, wall built around it by Justinian to help defend from constant atttakcs; held Hagia Sophia, a magnificent Christian church, which was destroyed and rebuilt by Justinian; was seiged by Ottoman Turks in 1453 and eventually turned into "the city" Instanbul
Loved expansion, went into Persia and grew empire. Valued wife and caesaropasism (pope and ruler). Rebuilt Hagia Sophia and expanded wall surrounding Constantinople
Split from The Roman Catholic Church in 1054 (The Great Schism); Byzantium's religion; church and government were not separated (caesaropapism); Emperor was the head of the church, not Pope; differed from Catholic Church on icons, celibacy, nature of the Trinity, and did not have Latin based language; Kievan Rus borrowed religion
Kievan Rus was made up of the first Slavic peoples from Eastern Europe that settle in Russia in 500 AD. They became a great state/empire that adopted Christianity from Byzantium, allowing it to spread and grow. Inspired by Constantinople, they made Eastern Orthodox Christianity their religion in part because it agreed with the lifestyle.
King of the Franks that established an empire that brought together parts of Germany, Italy, and
Leader who birthed children, leader of mongols, loved expansion and religious tolerance, and murdering people!!
Mongols in control of China. Led by Khublai Khan. Revitalized trade along silk roads. Chinese dynasty ruled by Mongols; revitalized the Silk Road and trade in general; used circulating paper currency; initially seemed as if they had strong control of empire, however corruption and natural disaster led to downfall.
Grandson of Chingiss Khan, founder of Yuan dynasty, attempted to incorporate chinese rituals and lifestyles to prevent otherthrow
The Grandson of Chingiss Khan who became Mongol ruler and conquered much of Western Asia. He conquered the Abbasid dynasty and captured Baghdad in 1258
Lots of Maritime expeditions, but after Yongle died, bureaucrats decided that expeditions were too costly and kinda stupid. Eunuchs still wanted maritime expeditions. Chinese dynasty following Yuan; mainly focused on emphasizing the Chinese and Confucian values that were lost during Mongol Rule; brought back civil service examination even more complex than before; very careful with foreign relations.
Chinese eunuch who encouraged maritime expeditions during Ming dynasty (Yongle) to declare China as the best country, and to gain tributary states.
The European Renaissance was a time period of the "rebirth" of Greek classical learning and literature. Literature, art, and thought and art was greatly impacted, though at the time it only effected the richest 1% of people.
A term that describes the effects that the Mongol conquest had on Eurasian territory, focusing mainly on their social, cultural, and economic life; unification under Mongol Empire allowed for easier communication and spread of ideas
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