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Campbell Biology Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Campbell Biology vocabulary and questions
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Organic Compounds
carbon based molecules
Hydrocarbons
compounds composed of only hydrogen and carbon
Carbon Skeleton
the chain of carbon molecules in a molecule
Isomers
element with different # of neutrons
Functional Groups
a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound
Hydrophilic
water loving (soluble in water)
Hydroxyl Group
-OH
Carbonyl Group
>C=O
Carboxyl Group
-COOH
Amino Group
-NH2
Phosphate Group
-OPO3^-2
Methyl Group
-CH3
Macromolecules
carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids
Polymers
a large molecule consisting of many identical chains linked together
Monomers
one of the repeating parts of a polymer
Dehydration Reaction
a reaction that removes
Hydrolysis
a molecule of waterreaction with the breaking of bonds with water
Enzymes
specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
Carbohydrate
a class of molecules ranging from the small sugar molecules dissolved in soft drinks to large polysaccharides like starches
Monosaccharides
a carbohydrate monomer
Disaccharide
two monosaccharides linked together
Starch
a storage polysaccharide in plants
Glycogen
animal storage of glucose
Cellulose
polymer of glucose, able to form microfibrils in plants
Chitin
structural polysaccharide used by insects to build exoskeleton
Hydrophobic
water fearing
Fat
large lipid made from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
fatty acid containing one or more double bonds
Saturated Fatty Acid
fatty acid containing only single bonds
Trans Fats
a form of fat that recent research associates with health risks
Phospholypids
contain a phosphate group and attach to 2 fatty acids rather than three
Steroids
lipids containing 4 fused rings
Cholesterol
component in cell membranes
Anabolic Steroids
synthetic variants of the male testosterone
Protein
a polymer made of 20 amino acids
Amino Acids
amino group w/ carboxyl group
Peptide Bond
covalent linkage between peptides to form a poly peptide
Polypeptide
a polymer made of peptides
DNA
genetic inheritance polymer
Gene
amino acid sequence program of inheritance
RNA
translates sequence of programming into proteins
double Helix
to polynucleotides wrap around eachother
_____ is formed when a Hydroxyl Group is added
alcohol
_____ is formed when a Carbonyl Group is added
aldehyde and keytone
_____ is formed when a Hydroxyl Group and a Carbonyl Group are added
sugar
_____ is formed when a Carboxyl Group is added
acid
____ is formed when an Amino Group is added
amine
_____ is formed when a Phosphate Group is added
organic phosphate-found in ATP
_____ is formed when a Methyl Group is added
methylated compound
_____ made up of only glucose monosacchrides used for storage in plants
starch
most carbohydrates are hydrophilic or hydrophobic
hydrophilic
fats and lipids are hydrophilic or hydrophibic
hydrophobic
Denaturation
polypeptides unravel, losing their specific shape, and changes its function
Protean Primary Structure
linear sequence of amino acids
Protein Secondary Structure
alpha helix and beta pleated sheet formed by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone
Protein Tertiary Structure
three-dimensional shape formed by interactions between R groups
Protein Quaternary Structure
association of multiple peptides
Nucleic Acids
gene polymers
Glucose
C6H12O6
Triose
3 carbon sugar
Pentose
5 carbon sugar
Hexose
6 carbon sugar
Sucrose
Glucose+Fructose