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AHSGE History Graduation Exam Study Guide
Terms in this set (243)
What European movement resulted in exposure to Middle Eastern and Asian goods(after a failed attempt to take away Holy Lands from Muslims)?
What European movement resulted in the rise of the protestant religion?
What European movement resulted in new art, technology, and a return to classical thought?
What terms are used to describe the exchange of goods between Europe and the Americas after Columbus's discovery?
What were the Spanish explorers called who searched for "God, gold, and glory"?
What was the name of the first American settlement in 1656 by Europeans?
What was the first successful English settlement in the New World (1607)?
What was the legislature of the Virginia colony called (the first representative government in the New World)?
House of Burgesses
What was the main reason for the American colonies protestation against British rule?
What war put the English into debt and forced them to tax and closely monitor the troops in Boston?
French and Indian War
What acts were enforced by the English that were already in place? (1760's)
What occurred in 1770 that resulted in 5 colonists being shot and killed by British troops in Boston?
In 1773 Bostonians protested the Tea Act by staging what famous event?
Boston Tea Party
The first skirmishes of the Revolutionary War occurred in what two towns?
Lexington and Concord
What famous English document (signed in 1215 by King John I) was the beginning point for representative government and protection of individual rights?
Jefferson used this idea (Dec. of Ind.), which allows for a people to overthrow its rulers if their natural rights are no longer being protected.
Social Contract Theory
Who was the English philosopher who greatly influenced Jefferson as he wrote the Declaration of Independence?
What French philosopher came up with the idea of a three-branch government?
What religious movement occurred in the 1730s and 1740s in the colonies?
What was the first meeting called when 12 colonies sent delegates to Philadelphia to discuss British tyranny (and take action)?
First Continental Congress
What group sent the Olive Branch Petition and wrote the Declaration of Independence?
Second Continental Congress
What document was sent to the British informing them of colonial independence?
Declaration of Independence
What was the first set of laws governing the U.S.?
Articles of Confederation
What famous convention was held to replace the Articles of Confederation with a more centralized government?
What was the solution to the problem of representation at the convention called?
What was the solution to the problem of how to count slaves for representation purposes?
The Constitution allows for power to be shared between the national government and the states. What kind of system is this?
The opening paragraph of the Constitution ("We the people...") is called what?
The Constitution calls for a three-branch government creating a separation of what?
What is the clause called which gives Congress broad powers?
A word for word interpretation of the Constitution is called...
A broad interpretation of the Constitution is called..
What amendment abolished slavery?
What amendment guarantees protection of the laws for all citizens?
What amendment gave the vote to African American males?
What amendment gave the vote to women?
What papers were written by Jay, Hamilton, and Madison encouraging the passage of the Constitution?
The Federalist Papers
What addition was made to the Constitution giving futher protection for individual rights?
Bill of Rights
What two political parties emerged after the debate over ratification of the Constitution?
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
Who developed the economic plan for the U.S. during the 1790's?
Who warned Americans about competing political parties in his farewell address?
Who served as chief justice of the Supreme Court for 34 years and helped shape a powerful national government?
What famous Supreme Court ruling established judicial review?
Marbury v. Madison
What act of colonial protestation resulted in the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts being passed by the British parliament?
Boston Tea Party
What document was sent to King George III as a final attempt at peace by the colonists in 1775?
Olive Branch Petition
What American colonist gave the famous speech stating, "give me liberty or give me death?
Who served as the commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War?
Who was the leader of the Sons of Liberty?
Who made the famous ride warning colonists that the "Redcoats were coming"?
What battle was the turning point in the Revolutionary War (resulting in France becoming our ally)?
Where were Washington's troops encamped during the harsh winter of 1777-1778?
What was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War (Cornwallis surrendered to Washington)?
What was the treaty called which gave the U.S. its independence from Great Britain?
Treaty of Paris 1783
The U.S. fought the British again in what war?
War of 1812
What law was passed by Jefferson that disallowed trade with other nations (including Britain) and led to the War of 1812?
What term was used to describe the British navy forcing Americans into service?
What ordinance was passed in 1785 that divided territory in the old northwest into townships?
Land Ordinance of 1785
What ordinance passed in 1787 disallowed slavery in the old northwest?
What action allowed Jefferson to double the size of the U.S. in 1803?
Who did Jefferson hire to explore the west?
Lewis & Clark
The post-War of 1812 years were called what (because of prosperity, one political party, etc.)?
Era of Good Feelings
What year did Alabama become a state?
What congressional agreement allowed Missouri to become a slave state and Maine to become a free state?
What famous speech outlined American foreign policy in 1823?
What law forced the five civilized tribes of the southeast to evacuate? (Jackson's tenure)
Indian Removal Act
What event resulted in the Cherokees marching at gunpoint from GA to OK (1838)?
Trail of Tears
List four major trails used by settlers in the western part of the U.S..
Santa Fe, Oregon, Mormon, California
Describe the southern economy before the Civil War. Agriculture:
Describe the northern economy before the Civil War. Balanced:
Industrial and agricultural
What country did Texas gain its independence from in 1836?
What was the U.S. goal (or fate) named which called for the acquisition of territory in the west (extending the country from sea to sea)?
Why did the U.S. fight Mexico (Mexican War) in 1846-1848?
What famous meeting in 1848 called for women to demand greater equality and opportunity in the U.S.?
Seneca Falls Convention
Who hosted the Seneca Falls Convention?
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
What white abolitionist from Massachusetts produced The Liberator?
William Lloyd Garrison
What black abolitionist from Maryland produced The North Star?
What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad?
To aid the escaped slaves
What black woman used the Underground Railroad to help liberate hundreds of slaves?
During the reform period of the 1830s and 1840s much of hte public called for abstinence from what?
What woman led reform in prisons in the U.S.?
Who led reform in education in the 1800s?
What religious movement in the early 1800s influenced people to help others (leading to all of these reform movements)?
Second Great Awakening
What were the communities called which tried to make a "perfect society"?
Who founded the Mormon faith? Joseph Smith Who led the Mormons to Utah?
What War of 1812 battle resulted in the protection of Baltimore and Francis Scott Key's inspiring "Star Spangled Banner"?
What War of 1812 battle did Jackson defeat the Creek Indians in AL?
What War of 1812 battle did Jackson defeat the British after a truce was called?
Which Supreme Court case (under Marshall) insured that the national government controlled interstate commerce?
Gibbons v. Ogden
Which Supreme Court case (under Marshall) ruled that the national bank was in fact constitutional?
McCulloch v. Maryland
What president gets credit for establishing the spoils system?
South Carolina's attempt to void the Tariff of 1832 was called the...
Whitman, Emerson, and Thoreau were writers of what movement?
What congressional solution made California a free state and gave popular sovereignty to the New Mexico and Utah territories?
Compromise fo 1850
What part of the solution in the Compromise of 1850 upset many northerners (there were five parts of this solution)?
Fugitive Slave Law
What act supported by Stephen Douglas gave popular sovereignty to two territories just west of Missouri?
What political party was formed in the 1850's that supported the anti-slavery platform (also, it is known as the party of Lincoln)?
What famous court case upheld the right of slave owners as property holders and disallowed slaves to file court cases?
Scott v. Sanford or the Dred Scott Decision
Who led the massacre at Pottawatomie Creek, NE and led the raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry?
Who won the presidential election in 1860?
What state was the first to secede from the Union in 1860?
What county in Alabama never seceded from the Union?
What state was actually split over the decision to secede and eventually became two states?
What was the most famous of the Black military units to fight in the Civil War?
What act passed by the Republican dominated congress (during the Civil War) gave large land grants to states from the federal government?
What act passed by the Republican dominated congress (during the Civil War) gave large land grants to states from the federal government?
Morill Land Grant Act
What did Lincoln pass on Jan. 1, 1863 granting freedom to slaves in the Confederate states in rebellion?
What did Lincoln suspend during the Civil War, depriving many citizens of their civil rights?
Writ of Habeas
What was the first major battle of the Civil War?
First Bull Run
What battle resulted in the single bloodiest day of the Civil War?
What major three-day battle did the Confederates (under Lee) lose in Pennsylvania?
What battle in Mississippi resulted in a complete blockade of the south by the Union?
What Union general captured Atlanta and continued southeast to Savannah destroying everything in his path?
General Tecumseh Sherman
What famous speech was given by Lincoln at a consecration ceremony where he reminded Americans of the basic ideal, "All men are created equal?"
Where did Robert E. Lee surrender to Grant in 1865?
What was the program called that returned southern states to the Union, rebuilt the South's infrastructure, and attempted to protect the rights of free blacks?
What were the laws called passed by southern states attempting to control freedmen and keeping them in a subservient position?
What were northerners called who moved to the South, voted Republican, and were scorned by southerners after the Civil War?
What were southerners called who voted Republican after the Civil War?
What southern secret society emerged during the Reconstruction that harassed, tormented, and killed blacks demanding equality?
Ku Klux Klan
What man served as president during Reconstruction and whose legacy (as president) is remembered as being very corrupt?
What congressional solution resulted in Hayes winning the presidential election in 1876 and Reconstruction ending?
Compromise of 1877
What were the laws called passed in southern states after Reconstruction that stripped African Americans of basic rights like voting?
Jim Crow Laws
What type of farming existed in the south after the war where farmers rented land to grow crops?
What type of farming existed in the south after the war where farmers were forced to share crops with landowners?
What animal was hunted and heavily relied upon by Plains Indians?
What 19th century technological innovation led to the rapid settlement of the western territories?
Many Native Americans were forced to live on..
What great Apache leader surrendered to the U.S. in 1886?
Custer and his cavalry were destroyed by the _____ at the Battle of _______________.
Sioux, Little Big Horn
Who was the leader of the Sioux nation at the above battle?
The United States government attempted to settle Indians on plots of land to farm with what act?
What event resulted in over 200 unarmed Sioux being massacred by U.S. troops in 1890?
Massacre at Wounded Knee
What were the settlers called who staked legal claims to land in Oklahoma?
How as the plow improved during the late 1800s?
Plowed several furrows at once
Why did the open ranges used by cattle disappear?
How did cattle ranchers move their beef back to eastern markets?
Long drives, train
What types of new equipment was developed for farming in the late 1800s?
Cornhuskers, cornbinders, steam powered threshers
List three complaints of farmers in the late 1800s
decline in crop prices, tariffs, deflation
How did the farmers organize themselves to fight big business?
. What was the name given to the farmers who organized themselves politically during this period?
Who was the presidential candidate in 1896 for the Populists?
What two energy sources were used to power factories in the late 1800s?
Westinghouse and Alternating currents
Who invented the light bulb and electric generators?
Who invented the telephone?
Alexander Graham Bell
What types of industry was Alabama involved in during the late 1800s?
What were the captains of industry referred to during the late 1800s?
List three important captains of industry during this time period
Carnegie, Rockefeller, Samuel Dodd
What theory was used to promote competition in the marketplace?
What idea was promoted by Andrew Carnegie that stated the wealthy should give back riches to the community?
Gospel of Wealth
What novelist wrote many fictional stories promoting hte "rags to riches" theme?
What types of labor problems did early unions try and cofrect?
Unsafe working conditions, low wages, shorter working hours.
What was the movement called which promoted change in government, business, and social welfare?
What did Theodore Roosevelt call journalists who were intent on exposing corruption at the turn of the century?
What novel was highly acclaimed for exposing problems in the meatpacking industry?
What journalist wrote an expose on Standard Oil?
Who was the African-American who encouraged blacks to seek social justice and equality and was an early leader of the NAACP?
What was the movement called that DuBois lead?
Who was the African American who encouraged blacks to learn a trade and also founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881?
Booker T. Washington
What African American man was famous for his work as an agricultural scientist?
George Washington Carver
What famous Supreme Court decision upheld segregation in 1896?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What amendment to the Constitution introduced an income tax?
What amendment made the election of senators by popular vote?
What amendment introduced prohibition as a national law?
What president introduced important conservation methods to preserve millions of acres of western lands?
What act was passed during Wilson's tenure that was intended to break up monopolies?
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
How did Wilson change the banking system in the United States in 1913?
Established the Federal Reserve System
What commission was set up by Wilson to monitor the practices of businesses?
Federal Trade Commission
What three parties entered a candidate for president in 1912? Republicans, Progressive, Democrats Who won?
The United States joined European nations in a race to conquest smaller, "uncivilized" nations and to gain access to their resources and markets. This was known as _________.
What territory was annexed by the U.S. in the Pacific Ocean in 1898?
What war did the U.S. become involved in in 1898?
What name was given to the sensationalistic journalism that served as a major cause of the Spanish-American War?
What group of volunteers did T. Roosevelt lead in the famous charge at the Battle of San Juan Hill?
What group of islands in the south Pacific did the U.S. gain control over as a result of the defeat of the Spanish?
President Roosevelt led the movement to build what canal in Central America?
What addendum to the Monroe Doctrine was made by Roosevelt justifying American intervention in the South American nations in trouble?
How did Taft's foreign diplomacy differ from Roosevelt's?
What were the long term causes of the first World War?
Imperialism, Militarism, Nationalism, Alliances
What was the immediate cause of WWI?
The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Why did the U.S. enter the war?
Sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Note
What types of technological innovations were used in WWI?
Tank and submarine
What treaty ended WWI?
Treaty of Versailles
What was the purpose of imperialism?
To expand your country
What type of fighting took place in World War I?
Who came up with the idea of the tank?
What type of technological innovation did the Germans bring to WWI?
Who were the Central Powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Who were the Allied Powers?
France, Britain, U.S, Russia, Italy
What acts contributed to the Nativist hatred of immigrants especially during and after WWI?
espionage and sedition
Name several groups of people who benefited from the diminished workforce during WWI.
Women, African-Americans, Mexican Americans
Which country refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles because the League of Nations was included in it?
Name the organization in which the nations of the world would join together to ensure security and peace for all members.
League of Nations
Which president supported the League of Nations?
Which political party rejected the League of Nations?
An intense fear of communism and other extreme ideas that gripped the U.S. during the 1920s.
Trial in which two immigrants were given an unfair trial due to their ethnic background and were eventually put to death
Sacco and Vanzetti
Name of the summer in 1919 in which race riots erupted in about 25 cities nationwide.
By 1922, this organization's membership had grown to about 100,000 and by 1924 to 4 million.
Ku Klux Klan
Migration of blacks from the South to the North for jobs
A number limit set up by laws to limit annual immigration.
This type of immigration was banned altogether in the 1920s.
List several technological innovations in the 1920s
Cars, planes, home appliances
African American literary awakening of the 1920s.
African American author of "Their Eyes were Watching God",
Zora Neale Hurston
List three leading poets/writers of the Harlem Renaissance.
Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes
This type of music grew out of African American music in the south, especially ragtime and blues
What type of age is the 1920s referred to as?
Illegal bars that flourished during prohibition.
Case over the teaching the theory of evolution in the classroom.
During the Great Depression, this made farmers unable to repay their debts for land and machinery.
Family Farm Prices
Allowed investors to purchase a stock for only a fraction of its price (10-15%) and borrow the rest.
Buying on Margin
The severe economic decline that lasted from 1929 until the U.S.'s entry into WWII in 1941.
Houses made out of cardboard paper or scrap metal.
A region in the Great Plains where drought and dust storms took place for much of the 1930s.
During his first 100 days Franklin D. Roosevelt pushed this program
The New Deal
This New Deal program insured bank deposits up to $5,000.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
This public works project was created in 1933 to help farmers and create jobs and hydroelectric power
Tennessee Valley Authority
This program put over 2.5 million unmarried men to work.
Civilian Conservation Corps
This program gave jobs building or improving roads, parks, airports, and other facilities to the unemployed.
Civil Works Administration
This program provided old-age pensions, disability payments and unemployment benefits.
FDR created this in response to critics who said he was not doing enough for ordinary Americans.
The Second New Deal
Name the Axis Powers in WWII.
Germany, Italy, Japan
Name the Allies.
U.S, Britain, France, USSR
Giving in to someone's demands in order to keep peace.
Conference in which Britain and France agreed to let Hitler have the Sudetenland.
On Sept. 1, 1939, Hitler invaded this country creating WWII
A German tactic in which tanks, soldiers, and moving trucks rapidly attack and are there before the foe has time to react.
This country began to expand in the Pacific, controlling most of China by 1940.
On Dec. 7, 1941 the Japanese attacked....
Women participated in the military during the war by belonging to which organizations?
WASPS, WAVES, and WAC's
This battle was the turning point of the war in the east.
Leader of the U.S. during the war.
Leader of the USSR during the war.
Leader of Germany during the war.
Leader of Great Britain during the war.
Leader of Italy during the war.
After this battle, Japan was unable to launch any more offensive operations in the Pacific
Japanese suicide planes.
Top secret project to create the atomic bomb.
U.S. military leader in Europe.
U.S. military leader in the Pacific.
Places where prisoners of war and political prisoners are confined, usually under harsh conditions
Where did the U.S. drop the atomic bomb?
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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