IB Bio semester 1 final

Structure of ribose
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Terms in this set (41)
pH on enzyme functionPrimary (polypeptide) protein structure-the order of the amino acids which the protein is composed -formed by covalent peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids -controls all subsequent levels of structure -neither fibrous of globularSecondary protein structure-the chains of amino acids fold or turn upon themselves -held together by hydrogen bonds between non-adjacent amine and carboxylic groups -H-bonds provide a level of structural stability -fibrousTertiary protein sturcture-folds to form complex 3D shape -caused by interactions between R groups -may be important for the function -globularQuaternary protein structure-interaction between multiple polypeptides or prosthetic groups *a prosthetic group is an inorganic compound involved in a protein -fibrous and globularMonosaccharides-quickly absorbed and readily used in cell respiration to release energy Examples: glucose, galactose, fructoseDisaccharides-found in plants and animals commonly found in foods such as honey, milk, sugar beet and sugar cane Examples: maltose, lactose, sucrosePolysaccharides-commonly used for energy storage, preventing plants from bursting, and preventing osmotic problems Examples: cellulose, starch (amylose and amylopectin), glycogendenaturation of enzymes-caused by extreme temperatures/heat and wrong pH levels -afterwords, the substrate can no longer bind to the active siteWater molecule-covalent bond between O and H -partial positive charge on hydrogen side -partial negative charge on oxygen sidecalculate actual size and magnification(RAM)Prokaryote vs Eukaryote-eukaryotes have a true nucleus while prokaryotes have a dense region of DNA called the nucleoid -prokaryotes have pili and flagella (in animal cells) -DNA can be found throughout the cell in prokaryotes -eukaryotes have membrane bound organellesPlant vs Animal cells-plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplast -plant cells have much larger vacuoles -animal cells have lysosomes -animal cells have flagella and/or cilliaDipeptide structureHydrolysis vs condensation-condensation makes bonds, hydrolysis breaks bonds -condensation is anabolism, hydrolysis is catabolism -C: synthesis, substrates are monomers, products are polymers, water is produced, enzymes/agent involved is synthase -H: breakdown, substrates are polymers, products are monomers, water is used, enzymes/agent used is hydrolaseLactase functionfunction is to breakdown lactose into glucose and galactoseelements involved in the formation of proteinshydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and possibly sulfurmembrane protein functions*T*- transport: protein channels and protein pumps *R*- receptors: peptide based hormones (insulin, etc) *A*- anchorage: cytoskeleton attachments and extracellular matrix *C*- cell recognition: MHC proteins and antigens *I*- intercellular joinings: tight junctions and plasmodesmata *E*- enzymatic activity: metabolic pathways (e.g. electron transport chain)competitive vs non-competitive inhibitioninteraction between water molecules-hydrogen bond between negatively charged O and positively charged HStructures found in all cellsnucleus or nucleoid, genetic material, plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasmStructures in cell membranes-phospholipid: a molecule with hydrophilic phosphate and hydrophobic lipid regions -phospholipid bilayer: a double layer of phospholipids that makes up a plasma membrane -integral protein: embedded in the lipid bilayer of a membrane -peripheral protein: attached to the surface of a membrane -cholesterol: a steroid present in the plasma membrane of animal cells, affects membrane fluidity -glycoproteinProkaryotic cell division-divide by binary fission (DNA replicates, cells divide) -the DNA is replicated semi conservatively -the 2 DNA loops attach to the membrane -the membrane elongates and pinches off (cytokinesis) forming 2 separate cells -the 2 daughter cells are genetically identical (clones)simple vs facilitated diffusion-simple: concentration gradient is high to low, no selectively permeable membrane, no membrane proteins, not ATP/energy source -facilitated: concentration gradient is high to low, selectively permeable membrane, membrane proteins, no ATP/energy sourceSurface area:volume in cells-smaller cells are more efficient than big cells because of import, export, and the more cells there are, the more membranes we have *more space for chemical reactions to take place -ways to maintain viable SA:V ratios: *cell division, cell differentiation, within the cell there are organelles->membrane withing the organelle, folding of organs, root hairs on plantsProperties of water-*cohesive*: ability to stick to itself *water droplets form: surface tension in plants->from roots to leaves, insects can walk on water -*adhesive*: ability to stick to other surfaces *capillary action, water droplets stick (to leaves, grass, etc) -*thermal*: takes a lot of energy to change the temp. of water *coolant for plants and animals, serves as a habitat for a lot of plants and animals -*solvent*: can dissolve many organic and inorganic substances that have polar regions *where metabolic reactions happen: increases diffusion rate, transport mechanismadhesion vs cohesion-Adhesion: water's ability to stick to other surfaces -Cohesion: water's ability to stick to itselfProkaryotic cell structurescellular exportation1) vesicle nears plasma membrane 2) fusion of vesicle and plasma membrane 3) exocytosis as plasma membrane opens externally 4) release of vesicle componentsEukaryotic cell structures (from micrograph)diffusion vs osmosis-osmosis is the diffusion of water, high to low concentration

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