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Statistics and Methods of Psychology
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Terms in this set (47)
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome
Applied reasearch
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Basic research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge
Hypothesis
A proposal to explain a fact or phenomenon
Independent variable
A variable whose values are independent of changes in the values
Dependent variable
a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends in the independent variable
Theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
Validity
research that measures what the researcher set out to measure
Reliablility
research that is consistent through various different experiments
Sampling
The process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study
Sample
a small part of something intended as representative of the whole
Population
the number of inhabitants. in a given place (country or city etc.)
Representative sample
the population is divided into strata and a random sample is taken from each stratum, sample carefully chosen so that the characteristics of the participants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population
Random sampling
teh selectio of a random sample
Stratified sampling
the population is divided into subpopulations (cohorts) and random samples are taken of each cohort
Experiment
Laboratory and field-scientific method of isolating and observing variables in a controlled environment or in a natural setting
Confounding variables-
the differences amongst participants
Random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance
Controls
factors in an experiment that are kept the same
Group-matching
attempt to categorize the subjects (by age, health status, gender, ect.) and ensure that the control group has members similar to those in the experimental group
Experimenter bias
bias introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment
Double-blind procedure
experiment in which neither the subjects nor the experimenter knows whether a subject is a member of the experimental group or the control group
Single-blind procedure
design in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental or control group
Response or participant
the tendency for subjects to behave in certain ways
Social Desirability
source of bias in responding to questions on personality inventories that occurs when people try to make themselves "look good"
Hawthorne Effect
a change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
Placebo method
Whenever participants in the experiment group are suppose to ingest a drug, participants in the control group are given an inert
Positive correlation
correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small
Negative correlation
a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other
Survey method
research method that involves gathering information from people through the use of surveys
Response rate
percentage of people contacted who complete the questionnaire
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations
case method study
carefully examine individual cases to develop an understanding of legal processes and the relationship between judicial theories
descriptive statistics
statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups
frequency distributions
a summary chart
Measures of central tendency
mean- the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
median- the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
mode- the most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
Extreme scores or outliers
scores that are far above or below the middle score
Positive skew
skewed distribution where data has many more scores toward the lower end of the distribution
Negative skew
skewed distribution with many more scores on the higher end of the distribution
Measures of variability
range, standard deviation, variance
z score
how many standard deviations a value is from the mean
Coercion
compelling by force
Informed content
consent by a patient to undergo/participate in a study or experiment
Anonymity
not being known Or acknowledged
Confidentiality
preservation of a patient's privacy
Debriefing
giving participants in a research study an exploding the study after it happened.
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