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Biological Bases of Behavior
Terms in this set (66)
The study of the parts and functions of neurons.
Individual nerve cells
Rootlike parts of the cell that stretch out from the cell body; grow to make synaptic connections with other neurons.
Contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life.
Wirelike structure ending in the terminal buttons that extends from the cell body
A fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speeds neural impulses.
The branched end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters.
The space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron.
Chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel the synaptic gap
Amount of energy sent for a neural message.
The electric message firing of neurons.
States that a neuron must either fire completely or not at all; a neuron cannot fire a little or a lot - the impulse is the same every time.
the electrochemical process, where electricity travels from dendrites to terminal buttons and chemicals travel between cells in the synapse
neurotransmitters that excite the next cell into firing
neurotransmitters that inhibit the next cell from firing
Neurotransmitter that controls motor movement; a lack of it is associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Neurotransmitter that controls motor movement and alertness; a lack of it is associated with Parkinson's disease while an overabundance is associated with schizophrenia.
Neurotransmitters that act as pain control; excess or deficits of endorphins are involved in addictions.
Neurotransmitter that act as mood control; a lack of it is associated with clinical depression.
Takes information from the senses to the brain.
Takes information from the brain to the rest of the body.
Central nervous system (CNS)
Consists of our brain and spinal cord (all the nerves housed within bone); transmits information from the rest of the body to the brain.
the bundle of nerves that run through the center of the spine
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Consists of all the nerves not encased in bone; divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Somatic nervous system
Controls our voluntary muscle movements.
Autonomic nervous system
Controls the automatic functions of our body; divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Sympathetic nervous system
Mobilizes our body to respond to stress.
Parasympathetic nervous system
Responsible for slowing down our body after a stress response.
research method that utilises subjects involved in accidents, documenting the brain damage and the subject's behavioral and personality changes after the accident
The removal or destruction of part of the brain.
Detects brain waves; shows researchers the types of brain waves produced during different stages of consciousness.
Computerized axial tomography (CAT/CT) scan
A sophisticated X-ray that uses several X-ray cameras that rotate around the brain and combine the pictures into a detailed three-dimensional picture of the brain's structure.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Uses magnetic fields to measure the density and location of brain material and creates a detailed image of the brain.
Position emission tomography (PET) scan
Lets researchers see what areas of the brain are most active during certain tasks; measures how much of a certain chemical parts of the brain are using.
Functional MRI (fMRI)
Combines elements of the MRI and PET scans to show details of brain structure with information about blood flow in the brain, tying brain structure to brain activity during cognitive tasks.
Consists of structures in the top of the spinal cord; the life support system; controls the basic biological functions that keep us alive; consists of the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
Involved in the control of our blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing; located above the spinal cord; part of the hindbrain.
Connects the hindbrain with the midbrain and the forebrain; also involved in the control of facial expressions; located just above the medulla and toward the front; part of the hindbrain.
Coordinates some habitual muscle movements; located on the bottom rear of the brain; part of the hindbrain.
Consists of structures just above the spinal cord but still below areas categorized as the forebrain; in general, coordinates simple movements with sensory information; most important part is the reticular formation.
A netlike collection of cells throughout the midbrain that controls general body arousal and the ability to focus our attention; if this does not function, we fall into a deep coma; part of the midbrain.
Control what we think of as thought and reason; consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.
Responsible for receiving the sensory signals coming up the spinal cord and sending them to the appropriate areas in the rest of the forebrain; located on top of the brain stem; part of the forebrain.
Controls several metabolic functions including body temperature, sexual arousal (libido), hunger, thirst, and the endocrine system; located right next to the thalamus; part of the forebrain.
Vital to our experiences of emotion; located near the end of each hippocampal arm; part of the forebrain.
Vital to our memory system - memories are processed through this area and then sent to other locations in the cerebral cortex for permanent storage; consists of two arms surrounding the thalamus; part of the forebrain.
Consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala; deals with aspects of emotion and memory.
The gray wrinkled surface of the brain which is actually a thin (1 mm) layer of densely packed neurons; covers the rest of the brain.
Left and right sides of the brain
the hemisphere that gets sensory messages and controls motor function of right half of the body
the hemisphere that gets sensory message and controls motor function of the left half of the body
Brain lateralization/Hemispheric specialization
the specialization of certain functions in each hemisphere
the bundle of nerves that connects the two hemispheres
the different parts of the cerebral cortex
Any area of the cerebral cortex that is not associated with receiving sensory information or controlling muscle movements.
Large areas of the cerebral cortex located at the top front part of the brain behind the eyes.
Located in the frontal lobe and is responsible for controlling the muscles involved in producing speech; damage to in might leave us unable to make the muscle movements needed for speech.
Located in the temporal lobe and is responsible for interpreting both written and spoken speech; damage to it would affect our ability to understand language.
Thin vertical strip at the back of the frontal lobe; sends signals to our muscles, controlling our voluntary movements.
Located behind the frontal lobe but still on the top of the brain.
Thin vertical strip that receives incoming touch sensations from the rest of our body; located behind the motor cortex in the parietal lobe.
Located at the very back of the brain, farthest from the eyes; interpret messages from our eyes in our visual cortex.
Process sound sensed by our ears.
the ability of the brain to adapt and perform other functions as needed
the system of glands that secrete hormones that affect different biological processes in our bodies
identical twins that develop from a zygote (one fertilized cell) that share all the same genetic material