Bio 10 Final 1
Terms in this set (53)
complex multicellular organisms that are autotrophs and dominant organisms on the surface of the earth.
aquatic organisms that are not well adapted
to living on land probably the ancestors of today's plants.
plants symbiotic relationships with fungi
Plants require relatively large amounts of six
nitrogen, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur.
watertight outer covering which has a waxy consistency and prevents water loss to the air.
stomata (singular, stoma)
Specialized pores that are passages through the cuticle that can be opened and closed and allow CO2 to enter the plant for
photosynthesis and H2O vapor and O2 to pass out.
alternation of generations
diploid generation alternates with a haploid one.
called the sporophyte and produces haploid spores by meiosis.
called the gametophyte and produces haploid gametes by mitosis.
Four key evolutionary advances in plants
Alternation of generations, Vascular tissue, Seeds, Flowers and fruits
Alternation of generations (evoulution)
The sporophyte becomes the dominant generation in all but the earliest plants.
Vascular tissue (evolution)
Transports water and nutrients through the plant body and provides structural support
Provide nutrients and protection for the embryo until it encounters favorable growing conditions
Flowers and fruits (evolution)
Improved the chances of successful mating in
sedentary organisms and facilitated dispersal of their seeds
two phyla of living plants completely lacking a
Liverworts (phylum Hepaticophyta), Hornworts (phylum Anthocerophyta)
Mosses (phylum Bryophyta)
phylum of plants has a simple conducting
tissue system of soft strands.
specialized cylindrical or elongated cells that form a network throughout a
Xylem and Phloem
Two types of specialized vascular tissue can be found in vascular plants.
conducts water and minerals from the roots upward to the rest of the plant.
conducts carbohydrates throughout the plant.
made plants longer or taller.
made it possible for a plant stem to increase in diameter.
product of secondary growth
Ferns and Club mosses
two phyla of living seedless vascular plants.
Male gametophytes that arise from microspores
female gametophyte contains the egg within and It develops from a megaspore.
by insects, wind, or other agents transfers pollen to an ovule.
brings sperm cells
directly to the egg.
the ovules are not completely enclosed by sporophyte tissue at the time of pollination.
the most recently evolved of all plant phyla, the ovules are completely enclosed
in sporophyte tissue called the carpel at the time of pollination.
seed's three main parts:
A sporophyte embryo, Endosperm, and a drought-resistant protective cover
a source of food for the developing embryo
the endosperm is used up by the embryo and stored as food in structures
Facilitates the migration and dispersal into new
Permits plants to postpone development until
conditions are favorable
Controls when the plant develops to synchronize with critical aspects of the plant's habitat
Provisions the seed during the critical period just after germination
Conifers (phylum Coniferophyta)
Trees that produce their seeds in cones and most have needle-like leaves
Cycads (phylum Cycadophyta)
Have short stems and palm-like leaves
Gnetophytes (phylum Gnetophyta)
Contains only three kinds of very unusual plants
Ginkgo (phylum Ginkgophyta)
Only one living species, the maidenhair tree, which
has fan-shaped leaves
Conifer trees form two types of cones
Seed cones and Pollen cones
contain the female gametophytes.
contain the pollen grains (male
flowers' four concentric circles
base that whorls connect to
form the outermost whorl and typically protect the flower from physical
the second whorl and serve to attract pollinators.
The third whorl and
contains the "male" parts that produce pollen.
innermost whorl and contains the "female" parts that
produce the egg.
The process of fertilization to produce both a zygote and endosperm
have two cotyledons
have one cotyledon.