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AP PSYCH VOCAB UNIT 4
Terms in this set (26)
first stages of learning when a response is established. In classical conditioning, it refers to the period of time when the stimulus comes to evoke the conditioned response.
the use of something unpleasant, or a punishment, to stop an unwanted behavior
Avoidance learning is the process by which an individual learns a behavior or response to avoid a stressful or unpleasant situation. The behavior is to avoid, or to remove oneself from, the situation.
Behavior modification is a therapeutic approach designed to change a particular undesirable negative behavior. By using a system of positive or negative consequences, an individual learns the correct set of responses for any given stimulus.
a mental representation of one's physical environment.
A discriminative stimulus is a type of stimulus that is used consistently to gain a specific response and that increases the possibility that the desired response will occur.
Escape conditioning occurs when a person learns to perform an operant to terminate an ongoing, aversive stimulus.
Extinction is the disappearance of a previously learned behavior when the behavior is not reinforced.
Learned helplessness occurs when people or animals feel helpless to avoid negative situations.
Any response you have to a stimulus that is inherent (you are born with it), it is a reflex.
Shaping is a conditioning paradigm used primarily in the experimental analysis of behavior.
Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay.
A token economy is a form of behavior modification designed to increase desirable behavior and decrease undesirable behavior with the use of tokens.
Clustering involves organizing information in memory into related groups. Memories are naturally clustered into related groupings during recall from long-term memory.
consolidation is the process where our brains convert short-term memories into long-term ones
dual-coding theory is a theory of cognition according to which humans process and represent verbal and non-verbal information in separate, related systems. Something verbal can trigger a thought of something nonverbal and vice versa.
Elaboration is the process of adding more information to existing, relatively simple information to create a more complex, emergent whole. It involves developing an idea by incorporating details to amplify the original simple idea.
A flashbulb memory is a detailed and vivid memory that is stored on one occasion and retained for a lifetime. Usually, such memories are associated with important historical or autobiographical events.
The forgetting curve hypothesizes the decline of memory retention in time. This curve shows how information is lost over time when there is no attempt to retain it.
Implicit memory is one of the two main types of long-term human memory. It is acquired and used unconsciously, and can affect thoughts and behaviors.
Method of Loci
The method of loci is also known as the memory journey, memory palace, or mind palace technique. This method is a mnemonic device adopted in ancient Roman and Greek rhetorical treatises
Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological attempt made by an individual to their characterists to direct one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding the desire from one's consciousness and holding or subduing it in the unconscious.
the persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior
a schema (plural schemata or schemas) describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.
Sensory memory is the shortest-term element of memory. It is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended.
Serial-position effect is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst
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