Biology (Review) Fall Semester
Terms in this set (85)
Monomers are subunits of
The formation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids is called
polymerization (monomers combining chemically to form polymers.)
(lipid/carbohydrate) stores the most energy.
Starch, glycogen and cellulose are all carbohydrates and examples of what type of biomolecule?
Carbon compounds that come from living organisms
Steroids, cholesterol, and wax are all examples of
The 3 parts of a nucleotide are
sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base
Starch is made up of many________________molecules
A biomolecule that is a large, complex set of chains composed of alternating subunits called nucleotide is called a ______________ _____________. It has a function of storing _______________ information.
A protein that catalyzes cellular reactions is called an
Lipids are ___________________ in water meaning they do not mix.
Starch, lipids, proteins are all biomolecules that are made up of smaller single-molecule units. Which one is more likely to be affected by the order of its single-molecule units?
Enzymes have a specific shape which determines its __________________ and this allows the enzyme to only act on a ____________________ with the complementary shape.
_________________ contains codes for proteins, which are necessary for the growth and functioning of an organism.
All living things are made up of _________________.
Molecules that have a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head and are major components of cell membranes are called _________________________.
The nucleus is found in ____________________ cells.
Cytoplasm is found in ____________ cells.
both eukaryote and prokaryote
The _________________ regulates the movement of materials in and out of the cell.
Internal membranes are found in ___________ cells.
All organisms, including bacteria, protists, fungi, plant, and animal, have DNA in their cells.
Ribosomes are found in _____________ cells.
both prokaryote and eukaryote
_______________ are the organelle that is responsible for intracellular digestion.
The cell membrane is said to be semipermeable because
it only allows certain things to pass through
Provides structural support and protection in plants
Energy transfer occurs in the __________ of all eukaryotic cells
The synthesis of new ___________ occurs at the ribisomes
Hypotonic solution - concentration of dissolved substances is lower outside the cell and higher inside the cell
cell will swell
water will move in
Isotonic solution - concentration of dissolved substances is the same inside and out
cell will stay the same
water moves in and out equally
Hypertonic solution - concentration of dissolved substances is higher outside the cell and lower inside the cell
cell will shrink
water will move out
Diffusion and osmosis are both types of _______ transport
Cell size is limited because of the speed of ______________ , amount of _______ , and the ___________ ___________ to ____________ ratio.
surface area to volume
In a diagram of cellular respiration, what would be shown as the main starting source of energy that is broken down?
During photosynthesis ___________ energy is converted to _____________ energy
light to chemical
Energy is captured and stored in the _____________ and released in the _______________________
Water and carbon dioxide are needed for ________________ and released during ________________________
Glucose and oxygen are needed for ___________ and released during _________________
Photosynthesis occurs in the ________________ and cellular respiration occurs in the ________________________
The energy stored in the bonds of glucose are transferred to the phosphate bonds in which energy molecule?
Cell growth, cell metabolism, and DNA replication occur during _________________
If a dog has 78 chromosomes in each of its body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each daughter cell after mitosis?
( the daughter cells will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell)
A disorder that results when human body cells lose the ability to respond to internal regulatory signals that control cell growth
____________ division would need to be stopped in order to prevent unregulated reproduction of cells
Cell _____________ is the process by which cells become specialized in form and function during development and is determined by the expression of only specific ______________
Damage during replication to DNA takes place in the ______ phase of the cell cycle.
An environmental factor that controls gene expression
In order to produce two daughter cell that are identical to each other DNA has to be _______________ during the S phase of the cycle
chromosomes appear and nucleus disappears
chromosomes align in the middle
chromosomes pulled apart
chromosomes unwind and nucleus reappears
Meiosis results in daughter cells that are
Genotype Bb is called
MEIOSIS ________________ the number of chromosomes
Meiosis __________________ genetic diversity
Crossing over between non-sister chromatids during MEIOSIS produces more ______________________
A species of plant produces either yellow seeds or green seeds. A yellow seed plant was crossed with a green seed plant and all offspring had yellow seeds.
Is yellow seed dominant or recessive?
#55) Tall (T) is dominant to short (t) in pea plants. List the ratio of genotypes in the offspring of a cross between a heterozygous pea plant and a homozygous recessive pea plant.
homozygous recessive tt
(use a punnet square)
Tt x tt
answer: 0 TT: 2 Tt: 2 tt
use punnett square for (# 56-57)
#56 - 0 %
#57 - 100 %
#58) If several pea plants with the genotype TTYy are crossed with pea plants with the genotype Ttyy, what percentage of the offspring will be expected to have the TTYy allele combination?
TY Ty TY Ty
Ty Ty ty ty
(use a 16 square punnet square)
A parent with AB blood type could never have a kid with type ________ blood.
Two parents who don't show any signs of a genetic recessive disease have a child who has the disease.
Each parent must be a carrier of the disease and be heterozygous for the disease.
In fruit flies, the sex-linked trait of red eye color (X) R is dominant over white (x) r.
What is the correct genotype for a red eyed male? XY
(with R superscript on the X chromosome)
A white eyed male? XY ( with r superscript on the X chromosome)
The four nitrogen bases that all organisms have in their DNA
nucleotide - Thymine
shape - double helix
sugar - dexyribose
nucleotide - Uracil
shape - single strand
sugar - ribose
(question # 64)
Hydrogen bonds- between the bases A-T, C-G
Covalent bonds- between the phosphate and deoxyribose sugar.
Nucleotide of a DNA molecule
(question # 64)
Made up of a phosphate, deoxyribose sugar,
and a nitrogen base.
(question # 64)
The difference in the sequence of __________ in DNA allows for the difference between organisms.
A sequence of three nucleotides, that specifies an amino acid, is called a _______________.
During ________________ two new DNA molecules are formed that are each identical to the original.
Protein synthesis involves ________________ DNA in messenger RNA and ________________ messenger RNA into amino acids.
Write the complementary strand of DNA to this DNA strand: ATCGGCATT
_________________ RNA molecules carry coded information to the ribosomes, and ___________________RNA molecules
An example of a ___________________ mutation would be when an entire chromosome is added to a chromosome set.
Translate the following mRNA sequence:
AUG GUU AAA CGA CAA UCC
Methionine- Valine- Lysine- Arginine- Glutamine- Serine
Mutations within the DNA that can be passed from the parent to the offspring occur in the ___________________.
If a yeast cell can use part of a human gene to repair itself, the yeast and human share parts of a _____________ code.
Mutations in DNA can result in alterations that are deleterious (harmful), or alterations that are beneficial (helpful), or alterations that do not affect the organism.
If a mutation produces a triplet that codes for the same amino acid as the original triplet, the mutation is _________ likely to affect a cell.
POINT MUTATION - mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide.