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Geology 101 Final Review
Terms in this set (78)
The ultimate source of energy for the hydrologic system comes from
Which of the following would be included in the hydrologic system?
a river flowing to the sea
condensation of water vapor in the form of rain or snow
evaporation of seawater into the atmosphere
Most of the water in the hydrologic system is contained
in the oceans
The San Andreas fault system in California is part of
a transform plate margin
At a divergent plate boundary, tectonic plates
move away from each other horizontally
Which of the following features develops where plates converge and one descends into the mantle?
The plate tectonic theory attempts to explain the dynamics of
the Earth's lithosphere
The island of Hawaii and the volcanoes of Yellowstone are probably caused by
a rising mantle plume
Isostasy in recent geologic times can be measured by
all of the above
What type of plate boundary is shown in this image from japan?
Earth's atmosphere is unique among the moons and planets in that
it is rich in oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2)
Continental shields are composed of?
very old and intensely deformed igneous and metamorphic rock
The absence of folded mountain belts on the Moon, Mars, and Mercury is evidence that the crusts of these planets
are immobile and may have been so throughout each planet's history
The lithosphere is made up of the upper mantle and the
Isostasy in recent geologic times can be measured by
-rebound of the crust formally occupied by ancient lakes
-subsidence of area surrounding large reservoirs
-uplift of eroded mountains
-rebound of the crust formally occupied by glaciers
Properties used in mineral identification include
A mineral that commonly shows conchoidal fracture is
Cleavage is most conspicuous in
is a complex silicate
has perfect one-directional cleavage
occurs as two varieties: biotite and muscovite
is formed of thin, elastic flakes
The color of a finely powdered mineral is called its
The mineral having the lowest hardness on the Mohs scale is
This photograph of two different minerals in a cluster best illustrates which property of a mineral?
When in contact with hydrochloric acid, which mineral gives off bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?
Most rock-forming minerals are
The geological differences between the Galilean satellites of Jupiter are
largely caused by differences
in the amount of tidal energy they receive
The most important heat source for the differentiation of Earth was probably
heat released by accretion
Which of the following features have been found on Venus?
folding of the surface
Which of the following planetary bodies has a thick atmosphere?
Which of the following planetary bodies is believed to be the most volcanically active body in the solar system?
The great canyon (Valles Marineris) on Mars is considered to be primarily the result of
Which of the following planetary bodies has the oldest surface?
Of the following, which was most important in establishing the sequence of events in lunar history?
the principle of superposition
The major physiographic provinces of the Moon are
maria and highlands
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9* disappeared when
it went into orbit around Jupiter and then collided with it
Which mineral resources are considered renewable?
No mineral resources are renewable.
Which coal contains the most carbon per volume?
The high electrical conductivity associated with metallic bonds results from _____.
the ability of outer electrons to move freely from atom to atom
Most of the hydrocarbons within oil and natural gas are derived from the breakdown of organic matter from once-living _____.
Petroleum is commonly trapped in
An example of harnessing geothermal energy is
using geothermally heated groundwater
There are major problems associated with the use of coal as a source of energy. They include
acid rain and open-pit mines.
Problems with the use of nuclear fuels as an energy source include
the disposal of the spent but still radioactive fuel.
U-235, the isotope of uranium commonly utilized in nuclear power plants, is _____.
rare even in uranium oxide deposits, and thus usable reactor fuel must be enriched with respect to this isotope
According to recent studies the major factor in limiting population and industrial growth will be
consumption of resources
Oil drilling not only provides gasoline and electric power but also material incorporated in _____.
Which of the following is a renewable resource?
by the decomposition of organic material in sedimentary rock
The conditions necessary for the accumulation of oil in an economic deposit include all of the following EXCEPT
sufficient heat and pressure to convert organic matter to hydrocarbons
a trap of barrier to migration
The most important energy source currently in use is
Which of the following are important hazards posed by earthquakes?
liquefaction of unconsolidated materials
tsunamis in the ocean
A solid inner core is indicated by the behavior of
S waves will NOT travel through
Earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault in California are related to?
a strike-slip fault at a transform plate margin
The distribution of earthquakes on Earth
delineates plate boundaries
The focus of an earthquake is
the point of initial movement
A surface along which rock on opposed sides is offset by sliding during an earthquake is called a _____.
If, during an earthquake, a footwall slides upward relative to a hanging wall, the fault is termed _____.
Aftershocks following a major earthquake _____.
may continue for days after the initial earthquake
are mostly much smaller than the original earthquake
may occur on the same fault as the original earthquake, or a different fault
Earthquakes are caused by
ruptures that occur where rocks are strained beyond their elastic limits
The epicenter of an earthquake is
a point directly above the focus
Which characteristics best describe S waves?
second to arrive, move through the Earth's mantle, will not move through a liquid
Which of the following statements is true of earthquakes?
Shallow earthquakes coincide with the crest of oceanic ridges.
Shallow earthquakes occur along transform faults between midocean ridge crests.
Earthquakes at convergent plate margins occur in a zone inclined downward beneath the adjacent continent or island arc.
Earthquakes along transform faults originate from lateral movement.
Strike is measured
as the orientation of a horizontal line on a bedding plane
Displacement along a strike-slip fault is best described as
horizontal displacement of rocks on either side of the fault.
The distinction between joints and faults is that _____.
faults are fractures along which displacement has occurred; displacement does not occur along joints
Right-lateral and left-lateral are both examples of _____ faults.
A fold shaped like an elongate trough is a(n) _____.
Continental collision is commonly marked by
the formation of large fold belts, thrust sheets
Extension of the lithosphere causes
stretching, thinning, and lengthening of rock layers
Wegener's idea of continental drift was rejected by American geologists because ________.
he could not conceive of a mechanism that would cause continents to shift positions
The theory of plate tectonics ________.
incorporates and explains both sea-floor spreading and continental drift
At a divergent plate boundary, two opposed plates ________.
move away from one another
Hawaii is an example of a ________.
The magnetic field of Earth in the geologic past ________.
is known to have experienced numerous polarity reversals, and is recorded in remnant magnetization of iron-rich minerals in rocks
Within the sea floor, the rate of geothermal heat flow is greatest ________.
along mid-ocean ridges
Under the theory of plate tectonics, the plates themselves are ________.
discrete pieces of lithosphere at the surface of the solid Earth that move with respect to one another
The youngest sea floor occurs ________.
along mid-ocean ridges
Most of the pulling force driving plate motion is produced ________.
at subduction zones
Every plate boundary can be recognized by ________.
the presence of an earthquake belt
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