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fundamentals of nursing berman snyder


any information a subject relates will not be made public or available to others without the subject's consent

Dependent variable

the behavior, characteristic, or outcome that the researcher wishes to explain or predict

Descriptive statistics

procedures that summarize large volumes of data; used to describe and synthesize data, showing patterns and trends


research that provides a framework to focus on the cultural patterns of thoughts and behaviors of a group of people
Branch of anthropology that is concerned with the history of nations and ethnic populations

Evidence-based practice (EBP)

the use of some form of substantiation in making clinical decisions
Clinical decision making based on simultaneous use of the best evidence, clinical expertise, and clients' values.


the availability of time as well as the material and human resources needed to investigate a research problem or question

Full disclosure

a basic right, which means that deception, either by withholding information about a client's participation in a study or by giving the client false or misleading information about what participating in the study will involve, must not occur

Grounded theory

research to understand social structures and social processes; this method focuses on the generation of categories or hypotheses that explain patterns of behavior of people in the study
Focuses on social processes


a prediction of the relationship among two or more variables

Independent variable

the presumed cause or influence on the dependent variable


a measure of central tendency, computed by summing all scores and dividing by the number of subjects; commonly symbolized as X or M

Measures of central tendency

measures that describe the center of a distribution of data, denoting where most of the subjects lie; include the mean, median, and mode
provides a single numerical value that denotes the "average" value for a variable

Measures of variability

measures that indicate the degree of dispersion or spread of the data; include range, variance, and standard deviation


a measure of central tendency, representing the exact middle score or value in a distribution of scores; the median is the value above and below which 50% of the scores lie


the score or value that occurs most frequently in a distribution of scores


research that investigates people's life experiences and how they interpret those experiences
Focuses on lived experiences


a measure of variability, consisting of the difference between the highest and lowest values in a distribution of scores


the degree to which an instrument produces consistent results on repeated use

Risk of harm

exposure to the possibility of injury going beyond everyday situations


segment of the population from whom data will actually be collected


the potential to contribute to nursing science by enhancing client care, testing or generating a theory, or resolving a dayto- day clinical problem

Standard deviation

the most frequently used measure of variability, indicating the average to which scores deviate from the mean; commonly symbolized as SD or S

Statistically significant

term applied after data have been analyzed to determine whether the results had a probability less than 0.05, which is considered the acceptable level of significance
they are not likely to have occured only by chance


the degree to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure


a study's logistics or mechanics
a system of principles or methods of procedure in any discipline


the degree to which an instrument produces consistent resulys on repeated use
consistency of measures

Research Design

overall structure or blueprint or general layout of a study

Research Process

a process in which decisions are made that result in a detailed plan or proposal for a study, as well as the actual implementation of the plan


entails using formal and systematic processes to address problems and answer questions

Qualitatitive Research

systematic collection and thematic analysis of narrative data

Quantitative Research

entails the systematic collection, statistical analysis, and interpretation of numerical data

Target population

the universe of elements to which the researcher wishes to be able to apply the study's findings

Inferential statistics

allows researchers to test hypotheses about relationships between variables or differences between groups

Scientific Validation

a thorough critque of a study for its conceptual and methodological integrity

Logical positivism

"truth" is absolute and can be discovered by careful measurement

Extraneous Variables

any variable that could influence the results of the study orther than the specific variable(s) being studied for their influence


a written plan specifying the procedures to be followed in giving a particular examination, conducting research, or providing care for a particular condition
instructions and careful training of research assistants are strategies that can be used to ensure the consistency and integrity of data collection procedures

Piolet Study

a "dress rehearsal" before the actual study begins


determine whether the findings of a study are sufficient quality too be used to influence practice decisions
Disecting a study to determine its strenghts and weaknesses, statistical and clinical significance, and the generalizability and applicability of its results

Cost-Benefit Analysis

considerations of potential risks and benefits of both implementing a change based on a study's findings and not implementing a change

Comparative analysis

assessing study findings for their implementation potential

Content analysis

data analysis involves searching for themes and patterns. the content of narrative materials is being analyzed

Naturalism (constructivism)

maintains that reality is relative or contextual and constructed by individuals who are experienceing a phenomenon

Institutional Review Board


Rights of Study Participants

Right not to be harmed
right to full disclosure
right to self-determination
right to privacy

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