Scientific Method
A method of learning about the world through the application of critical thinking and tools
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without manipulating or controlling the situation.
Positive Correlation
As the value of one variable increases (or decreases) so does the value of the other variable.
Negative Correlation
As the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases.
Survey Method
A research technique that questions a sample of people to collect information about their attitudes or behaviors.
Positive Correlation
As the value of one variable increases (or decreases), the value of the other variable increases (or decreases). A perfect positive correlation is +1.0.
Negative Correlation
As the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases.
A perfect negative correlation if -1.0.
A nerve cell
The branching extensions of a neuron that receive information and conduct impulses toward the cell body (soma)
The extension of a neuron through which neural impulses are sent
Myelin Sheath
protects the axon and influences the speed of the neural impulse
Axon Terminals
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
A chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neuron to the next and influences whether a neuron will generate an action potential
Ex: Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Serotonin
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs
Pituitary Gland
The endocrine system's "master gland" that, in conjunction with adjacent the brain area, controls the other endocrine glands
Thyroid Gland
Endocrine gland that helps regulate the energy level in the body
Adrenal Gland
Endocrine glands that help to arouse the body in times of stress
Pancreatic Gland
Regulates the level of blood sugar in the blood
Computerized Axial Tomography (CT or CAT)
A series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A technique that sues magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among types of soft tissue;
this allows us to see structures within the brain
Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET Scan)
A visual display of brain activity
Located at the base of the brainstem. It controls basic life-supporting functions like heartbeat and breathing
The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex
The "little brain", attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance
A neural center located in the limbic system that wraps around the back of the thalamus; it helps process new memories for permanent storage
Cerebral Cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neurons that form the body's ultimate control and information processing center
Corpus Callosum
The large band of neural fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres and allows them to communicate with each other
Frontal Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead that is involved in planning and judgment
Occipital Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head. Includes the primary visual processing areas of the brain.
Temporal Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears. Includes the auditory (hearing) areas of the brain.
The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or experience
Wernicke's Area
A brain area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression
Brain's Left Hemisphere
For most people, language functions are in the left hemisphere.
Brain's Right Hemisphere
Houses the brain's spatial abilities
The process by which sensory systems (eyes, ears, and other sensory organs) and nervous system receive stimuli from our environment.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Theory
Sensorimotor Stage
Preoperational Stage
Concrete Operational Stage
Formal Operational Stage
Sensorimotor Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage in which infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them (from birth to about 2 years of age).
Preoperational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage
(from about age 2 to age 6 or 7 years of age)
during which a child learns to use language
Concrete Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about age 6 to 11 years of age)
during which children gain the mental skills that let them think logically about concrete events.
Formal Operational Stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development. The person can think logically, hypothetically, and in the abstract.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Preconventional Stage
Conventional Stage
Post-Conventional Stage
Preconventional Moral Reasoning
Characterized by the desire to avoid punishment or gain reward
Conventional Moral Reasoning
Primary concern is to fit in and play the role of a good citizen and to follow the rules and laws.
Postconventional Moral Reasoning
Characterized by references to universal ethical principles that represent the rights or obligations of all people
Erik Erikson theorized ________ stages of psychosocial development.
Trust v. Mistrust
Infancy (0-1.5) A sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort & minimal amount of fear about the future. Infant's basic needs are met by responsive, sensitive caregivers.
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms, and behaviors of a group communicated from one generation to the next
Serial Position Effect
The tendency to recall the first and last items in a list more easily.
Spacing Effect
The tendency for distributed practice to yield better retention than is achieved through massed practice.
Distributed Practice
Spreading rehearsal out in several sessions separated by period of time.
Ethical Guidelines for Research
Informed Consent
Protection from Harm
Descriptive Statistics
Statistics that use numbers to summarize and describe data.
The extent to which a test yields consistent results.
If a personality test measures what it intends to measure then the test is considered...
The body of a neuron is located in the ________ section of the neuron.
What part of the cerebral cortex would you use to raise your left hand?
Right motor cortex
Alzheimer's Disease is associated with a lack of which neurotransmitter?
According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, what are the 5 stages of a dying patient?
denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance
What stage of prenatal development includes the formation of most of the major organs?
What is the automatic response called of a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for food?
Rooting Reflex
A cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information.
When Dan was five, he watched his father throw items and yell at everyone around him when he became angry.
If Dan grows up to be aggressive adult, which factor could have influenced his behavior based on the above example?
Kevin suffers a series of terrible calamities. His friend suggests that Kevin must have done something terrible to deserve his misfortunes. The idea that Kevin is suffering bad events because he has done bad things is an example of what?
Cultural Fairness
While your mother is lecturing about cleaning your room, you lose concentration. Suddenly you hear the significant words, "no car keys" and "are you listening to me?" You are able to repeat the last few things she said before mentioning car keys.

This is an exampe of...
Priming of specific memories
What is "psychologically abnormal behavior?"
Harmful behaviors that are maladaptive, unjustifiable, disturbing, and atypical.
Deep (or elaborate) processing
A type of encoding in which you repeat a name over and over again in your head, to help you remember it.
Walking into the bedroom, you think, "I need to get my backpack in the garage." When you reach the garage, you forget what you came in there for. As you return to the bedroom, you suddenly realize "backpack!"
Flashbulb memory
True of False:

In the past, mentally ill people were often thought to be possessed by demons, tortured, or put to death.
What is the concept called that mental diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and often cured?
Medical model
Re-arranging the letters Y, M, O, M , R, E to form the word MEMORY is a technique called _________.
John is embarrassed because he momentarily fails to remember the name of a good friend. His poor memory is most likely the result of the failure of what?
Personality Disorder
Lasting, rigid behavior patterns that disrupt social functioning.
Shallow encoding is to short-term (working) memory as Deep encoding is to _________.
long-term memory
A chart that depicts the number of coffee cups drunk in a day contains _____________________ data.
One issue with personality testing is a person will often receive different results on the same personality test when it is taken at different times of the day, week, month, or year.

What does the personality test lack in this scenario?
Scenario: What connection did Abby make when she learned that "dog" has four legs and is furry?
During puberty, an example of "secondary sex characteristics":
Males growing facial hair
What is the process of forgetting painful experiences, according to Sigmund Freud?
Motivated Forgetting
Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned.
What memory does this illustrate?
Which of the following is NOT classified as a psychological disorder: maladaptive, atypical, unjustifiable, malicious