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DC Biology Semester 1 Final
Terms in this set (66)
Which of the following sequences represents the hierarchy of biological organization from the least to the most complex level?
molecule, cell, organ system, population, ecosystem, biosphere
Why is it important that an experiment include a control group?
Without a control group, there is no basis for knowing if a particular result is due to the variable being tested or to some other factor
Each element is unique and different from other elements because of the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. Which of the following indicated the number of protons in an atom's nucleus?
What is the approximate atomic mass of an atom with 16 neutrons, 15 protons, and 15 electrons
Atoms whose outer electron shells contain eight electrons tend to
be stable and chemically nonreactive, or inert
What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
a polar covalent bond
Why does ice float in liquid water?
Water expands as it freezes keeping the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water
Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, the solute molecule is most likely
The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are
covalent bonds between atoms within water molecules
A carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond(s) with other atoms?
What is the chemical mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers?
A molecule with the chemical formula C6H12O6 is probably a
a carbohydrate and monosaccharide only
Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose
they are both polymers of glucose
The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires
the release of a water molecule
Altering which of the following levels of structural organization could change the function of a protein
Primary, secondary, tertiary, and Quaternary
Which of the following is a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
Which of the following store and transmit hereditary information
which term includes all others in the list?
The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6 what would be the molecular formula for a polymer made by linking ten glucose molecules together by dehydration synthesis?
Which of the following statements concerning unsaturated fats is true?
They have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids
Biologists generally define life in terms of a group of characteristics possessed by living things. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of living things?
All living things are composed of more than one cell
You add sugar to your coffee, and the sugar dissolves. Thus the coffee is the _________ and the sugar is the __________.
Near an ocean or other large body of water, air temperatures do not vary as much with the seasons as they do in the middle of a continent. This tendency of water to resist changes in temperature is the result of water's:
high specific heat
Of the following pH's, which is the strongest acid?
Glucose and the amino acid tyrosine are members of different classes of biological molecules, but they are alike in that both are _______ that go into making up ________.
Which of the following functions groups is found in alcohols and carbohydrates
Which of the following complex carbohydrates are found in the cell walls of plants and are not digested by humans?
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except
an endoplasmic reticulum
Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules
Under which of the following conditions would you expect to find a cell with a predominance of free ribosomes?
a cell that is producing cytoplasmic enzymes
Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steriods
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell
The fact that the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope has bond ribosomes allows one to most reliably conclude that
at least some of the proteins that function in the nuclear, envelope are made by the ribosomes on the nuclear envelope
In animal cells, enzymes designed to breakdown cellular components are packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components, often working at a pH that is different then the remainder of the cell. Which of the following organelles functions in this way?
Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large and complex lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition?
The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
Which of the following is a compartment that often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
Which is one of the main energy transformers of cell?
Which of the following are capable of converting light energy to chemical energy?
A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from
a plant or an animal
Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?
All of the following serve an important role in determining or maintaining the structure of plant cells. Which of the following are distinct from the others in their composition?
plant cell walls
Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective functions is correct?
cell wall: support,protection
Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through
Cells of the pancreas will incorporate radioactively labeled amino acids into proteins. This "tagging" of newly synthesized proteins enables a researcher to track their location. In this case, we are tracking an enzyme secreted by pancreatic cells. What is its most likely pathway?
d. ER-Golgi-vesicles that fuse with plasma mebrane
ER-Golgi-vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
Which cell would be best for studying lysosomes?
white blood cell
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide would be found within the
Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural components of the cell membrane?
phospholipids and proteins
The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals
enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops
According to the fluid mosaic of cell membranes, which of the following is a true statement about membrane phospholipids?
They can move laterally along the plane of the membrane
Which of these often serve as receptors or cell recognition molecules on cell surfaces
What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?
small and hydrophobic
Which of the following statements in correct about diffusion?
It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
A patient has had a serious accident and lost a lot of blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, distilled water, equal to the volume of blood lost, is transferred directly into one of his veins. What will be the most probable result of this transfusion?
The patient's red blood cells will swell because the blood fluid is hypotonic compared to the cells
Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that the cells of the celery stalks are
hypotonic to fresh water but hypertonic to the salt solution
A cell whose cytoplasm has a concentration of 0.02 molar glucose is places in a test tube of water containing 0.02 molar glucose. Assuming that glucose is not actively transported into the cell, which of the following terms describes the tonicity of the external solution relative to the cytoplasm of the cell?
When a plant cell, such as one from a peony stem, is submerged in a very hypotonic solution, what is likely to occur?
the cell will become turgid
Which of the following membrane activities require energy from ATP hydrolysis?
Na+ ions moving out of the cell
Glucose diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which transport mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells?
White blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?
Which of the following processes includes all others?
b.diffusion of a solute across a membrane
c. facilitated diffusion
d. passive transport
Suppose that a cell could be seen to lack microtubule filaments. Which of these would be the most likely effect of this condition?
an inability to move proteins from one part of the cell to another
Cells need large amounts of ribosomal RNA is made in a specialized structure known as ________, which is found in ____________.
the nucleolus; the nucleus
Heart muscle cells have a number of gap junctions connecting them to their adjoining cells. From this you can conclude that heart muscle cells:
You get a cut on your finger and some bacteria enter. Your immune system cells kill off the invaders by investigating them. This is an example of:
Explain why the phospholipid "heads" of the plasma membrane are always pointed toward the cytosol and extracellular fluid, whereas the "tails" are always oriented toward the middle of the membrane.
The heads of the plasma membrane are hydrophillic and are pointed toward the cytosol and extracellular fluid because they can be in the water. The tails however are hydrophobic and always oriented toward the middle of the membrane because they can not be touching the water.