Spearman proposed that all mental tasks require 2 types of abilities, a ________ ability, or "g factor," and a ________ ability, or "s factor;" the former is common to all intellectual tasks, while the latter applies to particular tasks.
Thurstone, who developed the method of factor analysis, believed that intelligence was made up of a group of independent factors, which he called Primary Mental Abilities. Identify the 4 Primary Mental Abilities he postulated.
Word fluency, memory, spatial relationships, and reasoning
According to Guilford, ________ thinking refers to one's ability to generate creative and new ideas by exploring numerous solutions, while ________ thinking refers to one's ability to synthesize information into a unifying concept in order to solve a problem (e.g., multiple-choice tests, arithmetic).
Cattell referred to a person's capacity to draw inferences, find meaning in confusion, solve new problems, and understand complex relationships as ________ intelligence, which is independent of culture and training; ________ intelligence refers to a person's ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience and is almost entirely contingent on cultural and educational experience.
Fluid (impacted most by age and brain damage); crystallized (remains stable with age)
What are the 8 "multiple intelligences" proposed by Gardner?
Linguistic, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, interpersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist
Based on population parameters, what percentage of differences in IQ scores can be attributed to heredity (nature) compared to environment (nurture)?
50% to both, though this does not necessarily hold for a single person
The majority of theorists today believe that intelligence develops primarily as a function of what?
Interaction between nature and nurture, as opposed to specifically one or the other
True or False: Infant intelligence tests generally provide accurate predictions of future adult IQ?
False- they are best at predicting future IQ for very low-scoring babies, hence they are used mostly to screen for delayed or abnormal development
While similar in terms of general intelligence, what are some of the differences researchers have found between males and females regarding intelligence?
Females score higher on tests of verbal skills, males score higher on tests of spatial ability; on the SAT, boys score higher on math and verbal sections
Zajonc's ________ model states that intellectual stimulation and other family resources available to each child declines as the number of children in a family increases, hence first-born children tend to have greater intellectual abilities than later-born children.
In their book "The Bell Curve," Hernstein and Murray take what position about differences in intelligence between Caucasians and African-Americans?
They are due mostly to innate, genetic differences (criticized for failing to consider environmental factors)
True or False: African-American children adopted and raised by Caucasian parents with higher socioeconomic status and intelligence tended to have IQs similar to those of their adoptive parents?
True- while their biological parents had average to below average intelligence, the children scored well above the mean for African-American children (supports nurture argument)
Who is best known for adapting Binet and Simon's intelligence scales for American use, as well as his studies of gifted children?
This test of intelligence uses a hierarchical model of intelligence with a global "g" factor, routing subtests (Vocabulary and Object Series/Matrices), and subtests grouped into content areas (Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, and Working Memory); the difficulty of items are adjusted according to the functional level of the examinee.
Stanford-Binet, Fifth Edition (SB5)
What is the difference between a "ratio IQ" (as used by early versions of the Stanford-Binet) and "deviation IQ?"
Ratio IQ compares mental age to chronological age, while deviation IQs are standardized and share the same mean and standard deviation across ages (permits comparison across age groups)
What test is designed to assess the intelligence of children between the ages of 6 years and 16 years, providing 4 index scores (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, Processing Speed), individual subtest scores, and a Full-Scale IQ?
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)
This test might be used to measure the cognitive functioning of a child between the ages of 2 years, 6 months and 7 years, 3 months?
Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
Of the 7 verbal subtests on the WAIS-III, ________ most accurately measures general intelligence; ________ measures long-term memory and crystallized intelligence acquired from cultural experience; ________ measures judgment, insight, and common sense; ________ measures reasoning ability, concentration, memory, and math abilities; ________ measures abstract verbal reasoning and verbal concept formation; ________ measures attention and working memory; and ________ measures attention, short-term memory, and immediate auditory recall.
Vocabulary; Information; Comprehension; Arithmetic; Similarities; Letter-Number Sequencing; Digit Span
Of the 7 performance subtests on the WAIS-III, ________ measures visual organization, long-term visual memory, concentration, and reasoning; ________ measures interpretation of social situations, visual perception, and foresight/planning; ________ measures visual-motor coordination, visual-spatial comprehension, and nonverbal concept formation; ________ measures the ability to perceive visual part-whole relationships and mental processing speed; ________ measures psychomotor speed, short-term memory, and visual-motor coordination; ________ measures nonverbal reasoning and is one of the best general intelligence measures among the performance subtests; and ________ measures processing speed, planning, and perceptual organization.
Picture Completion; Picture Arrangement; Block Design; Object Assembly; Digit-Symbol Coding; Matrix Reasoning; Symbol Search
True or False: The Stanford-Binet and WAIS-III are equally as useful for testing individuals with profound mental retardation or who are extremely gifted?
False- the Stanford-Binet is more useful
When interpreting a WAIS-III completed by a patient with Alzheimer's Disease, it is likely their scores on the ________ subtests will be significantly better than scores on the ________ subtests, with a typical 10 point discrepancy.
This test measures the cognitive ability of children from 3 to 18 years of age and was designed to be free of cultural bias by minimizing verbal instructions and responses; scores are provided on the following 5 scales: Simultaneous, Sequential, Planning, Learning, and Knowledge.
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (K-ABC-II)
This test, used for those between 4 and 90 years-old, can be used to compare verbal and nonverbal abilities, screen for gifted students, estimate the intelligence of people in institutionalized settings, and reevaluate people already given an IQ test.
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, 2nd Edition (KBIT-2)
This might be used to measure a student's planning, attention, simultaneous processing, and sequential processing in order to assess for academic strengths and weaknesses, as well as develop educational interventions.
Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)
The ________ is used to assist in identifying children (from 5 to 17 years, 11 months) at risk of academic failure or those who may need additional testing; the ________ is used as a brief screening test of crystallized verbal intelligence for ages 4 through 65 whose IQ range from 36 to 164, and it is appropriate for visually impaired of blind individuals.
Slosson Intelligence Test - Primary (SIT-P-1); Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults (SIT-R3)
The ________ is a comprehensive, individually administered, clinical instrument for assessing specific cognitive abilities that are important to learning, providing profiles of strengths and weaknesses. It is used for people between 2 years 6 months through 17 years 11 months and measures abilities using a cognitive battery and an achievement, or diagnostic, battery.
Differential Ability Scales (DAS-II)
This test contains 2 distinct, co-normed batteries, one assessing scholastic aptitude and oral language, the other measuring general intellectual ability and specific cognitive abilities; comparing the ability/achievement discrepancies (after administering both batteries) is a common method for evaluating a person's eligibility for special programs.
Woodcock-Johnson III, which consists of the Tests of Achievement (WJ III) and Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG)
Utilizing both observations of infant and child activities as well as information provided by caretakers, this test measures development in the areas of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social functions for children between 4 weeks and 6 years of age.
Gesell Developmental Schedules
Viewed by many psychologists as one of the best assessment measures of infant development, the ________ is used to identify developmental delays and plan intervention strategies for children aged 1 to 42; the battery includes the following 5 subtests: cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behavior.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Based on direct observation of a child's performance and assessing 4 developmental domains (personal-social, language, fine motor adaptive, and gross motor), this test is used to screen for developmental delays in children from birth to 6 years-old; often used by medical practitioners.
Denver Developmental Screening Test II (Denver II)
All measuring one's ability and competency to meet expected standards of personal independence and social responsibility, these are some of the measures that might be used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment planning of people with mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, brain injury, ADHD, or dementia.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scales, Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children
What nonverbal test of intelligence consists of the examiner showing pictures and giving a stimulus word, and the examinee subsequently indicating (verbally or nonverbally) which picture best represents the word?
The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - 3rd Edition (PPVT-III)
During this test, examinees are presented with a set of pictures and asked to indicate which one does not fit with the others; it is useful for children with sensorimotor disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy) and speaking or reading difficulties.
Columbia Mental Maturity Scale
What nonverbal test might be used to assess the intelligence of a partially-sighted or blind person 16 years or older?
Haptic Intelligence Scale (similar to performance subtests on WAIS)
Developed to assess the intelligence of deaf or hard of hearing children aged 3 to 17 years, the ________ consists of 12 nonverbal subtests.
The Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude
This would be a good test to administer a child who recently arrived from a non-English speaking country, as it involves no spoken instructions and involves matching picture response cards to the same pictures on an easel.
Leiter International Performance Scale - Revised (Leiter-R)
True or False: The attempt to design tests of intelligence that are free of cultural bias has been largely unsuccessful?
True- experts agree that even nonverbal tests rely on logic, which is itself influenced by cutlure
Often included in neuropsychological batteries and used to assess perceptual ability and spatial logic, the ________ consists of giving the examinee a series of designs and asking them to indicate from a group of alternatives what the next matrix should be in order to complete the overall set; it is viewed as "culture-fair."
Raven's Progressive Matrices
This culturally-fair method of assessment involves administering an adaptive behavior scale, sociocultural scales, the WISC-IV (or WPPSI-III), the Bender-Gestalt, physical dexterity tasks, and obtaining a health history; it has been standardize for use with Caucasian, Latino, and African-American groups.
System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)
These types of tests are typically used in situations where time is limited and/or individualized testing would be too costly; for example, the U.S. Military utilizes such testing to help determine recruit placement.
Group intelligence tests (e.g., Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, Cognitive Abilities Test, Wonderlic Personnel Test)
Tests of ________ measure limited, defined, and homogenous groups of abilities and serve to predict future behavior, while ________ tests measure what a person has learned as the result of a program.
What is another term used to describe what a person has already learned?
Developed capacity (measured by achievement tests)
This term refers to the notion that there is a generalized test-taking skill independent of a person's overall IQ, anxiety level, achievement orientation, or motivation; experts have suggested it is nothing more than the application of the person's general cognitive ability to the test-taking task.
The APA's ________ presents required and recommended guidelines for test construction, publication, dissemination, interpretation, and use; the ________ includes critical reviews of most English-language psychological, educational, and vocational tests, including their reliability and validity.
Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests; Mental Measurement Yearbooks (MMY)
A school ________ tends to focus primarily on assessment, while a school ________ is most likely to work with parents and teachers to assist in helping the child.
The purpose of this type of educational assessment is to help identify progress in terms of the existing curriculum and any change in instruction that would aid the student's progress in completing the curriculum.
What teaching method encourages students to select their own activities from an environment that has numerous self-teaching toys and materials, deems external reinforcement unnecessary due to students' natural motivation to learn, and involves very little didactic group teaching (i.e., lecturing)?
The Montessori Teaching Method
Initiated by the government in 1965, this project was designed to intervene for children of poverty by providing a year of preschool, nutritional and medical services, and parent involvement in education and program administration; research has shown it to be largely successful.
Project Head Start
Grouping children in classrooms their ability level is referred to as ________, which has been shown to have significant negative effects on low to moderate achieving students and few to no positive effects for high achievers.
True or False: Teachers tend to pay more attention to girls than boys?
False- research suggests boys receive more attention, perhaps as a result of their higher likelihood of acting-out in class
In this type of cooperative learning environment, students are split into competency groups, each student in the group is given a list of subtopics to research, then students are responsible for teaching what they have learned to the rest of the group.
What legally defined the rights of disabled children to equal access to public education?
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA), which has since been reworked and renamed Individuals with Disabilities Education Acts (IDEA)
This legally gave parents the right of access to their children's educational records, as well as the ability to challenge any content thereof.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (aka the Buckley Amendment)
Developed from the Americans with Disabilities Act requirement that students be assigned to the least restrictive environment, ________ refers to placing disabled students in regular classes for all or part of the school day.