apush mult. choice test ch 2-5
Terms in this set (41)
sir walter raleigh
wealthy court favorite of Elizabeth I who, in 1583, inherited a patent authorizing him to establish a colony. He made three attempts to start a settlement on Roanoke Island but was unsuccessful.
This was the first settlement of North America by the English. The first two attempts failed and the third settlement disappeared mysteriously before a supply ship could reach the starving settlers.
It was established by John Smith and was the first permanent settlement in the New World. Jamestown was located along the banks of the James River, Virginia, and was named in honor of King James I.
Indian princess and daughter of Chief Powhatan of the Algonquin Indians of Virginia. She contributed to the survival of the Jamestown colony by providing food and serving as an informer of Indian plans for the colonies. She later married John Rolfe, a tobacco planter who helped make tobacco a staple crop, and accompanied him to England where she died of illness while preparing to return to America.
A young adventurer who led and saved the Jamestown colony in 1608. He provided leadership as a member of the governing council and his return to England resulted in a starvation period for the colonists.
He was a prominent humanitarian who led a group of proprietors and settlers to Georgia in 1732. He led the colonists to victory over the Spanish and the Indians and was the most important founder of the thirteenth colony, Georgia.
House of Burgesses 1619
This was the first elected legislature in the colonies and was composed of two representatives from each plantation. The representatives met with the governor and council to frame laws for Virginia.
He was a prominent English Catholic who was seeking a haven for other Catholics. In 1632, he received the land grant first promised to his father. Created Maryland as a haven for all Christians.
Maryland's Act of Tolerance 1649
This act allowed freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland to keep peace between Protestants and Catholics.
It was a colony financed and run by the King of England. The King appointed a royal governor for each of his colonies.
Charter Colony (joint Stock)
It was a colony that was owned and maintained by stockholders whose type of government was chosen by the stockholders.
It was a colony that was given to a wealthy person to alleviate the amount of money the king invested into the colonies. The proprietor chose whatever form of government he wanted, and made laws in his colony.
Name of the religious belief system of the Puritans. The Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin, an ardent Protestant who interpreted the Bible as the literal Word of God and predestination. Puritanism also believed in a rule by religious faith, or theocracy, that would allow the state to force all people to live and worship in a certain way.
In 1620 the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts in search of religious freedom. They were persecuted for wanting to "separate" from the Church of England so they emigrated to the New World on the Mayflower.
English-born Puritan clergyman and dissenter. Williams founded the colony of Rhode Island following his banishment from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635. Believing that religion should be free from government control, he made the colony a haven for Quakers and other dissenters who were persecuted by the Puritan theocracies in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
English explorer who explored North America in an unsuccessful search for the Northwest Passage. During the third of his four voyages, he sailed up the Hudson River to the present-day site of Albany and as far south as North Carolina and the Hudson Bay.
The first elected governor of the Plymouth colony and served for 30 years at this position.
Mass. Bay Colony
In the 1630s, the Puritans colonized Massachusetts in present-day Boston. They did not want to separate from the Anglican Church, but because they could not purify it, they left England. Puritanism was called the Congregational religion because all Puritan males had a say in government affairs.
Puritan clergyman and founder of Connecticut. Dissatisfied with the conservative views of the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Hooker left with a group of followers and established a settlement at Hartford, Connecticut in 1636.
An English Quaker and believer in religious toleration, Penn founded the American colony of Pennsylvania, obtaining the land grant from King Charles II to establish a haven of religious freedom and democracy.
Salem Witchcraft trials
Trials that caused witchcraft hysteria, when a group of teenage girls behaved oddly. The community of Salem was torn apart as figures were pointed out in the community and 20 people were killed for being witches/wizards.
This bound John Winthrop and fellow Puritans to migrate to America if the British government allowed them to keep a charter that gave the Puritans virtual self-government by 1629.
Puritan clergyman and leading member of the Congregationalist church in America. Facing persecution for his Puritan views in England, Cotton immigrated to Boston in 1633 and became a respected leader. Believing in a close partnership between church and state, Cotton supported strict Puritanism.
The first written agreement of self-government in America. When colonists on the Mayflower discovered they had landed several miles north of their Virginia destination, they realized they were outside of English jurisdiction. They drew up a compact aboard ship and required all to sign it before going ashore to settle in Plymouth, Massachusetts. They pledged to obey just and equal laws passed by the majority
Bacon's Rebellion 1676
Nathaniel Bacon led thousands of angry back-country men against Governor Berkeley of Virginia. The governor was unwilling to fight the Indians who were attacking the settlers because he wanted to preserve the colony's fur trade. It demonstrated the immense frustration of landless whites, and foreshadowed an end to indentured servitude.
A person who worked without wages, usually for a period of five to seven years, in exchange for payment of the person's passage to the American colonies. The contract, called an "indenture," entitled the servant to food, clothing, shelter, and medical attention. Devised by the Virginia Company in the late 1610s, the system provided cheap labor. As many as one-half to two-thirds of all European immigrants to the colonies participated in the system. The practice disappeared in 1800.
The first African slaves were introduced into Jamestown, Virginia in 1619 by Dutch traders to provide colonists with workers for their fields. However, they were not popular at first and didn't become common until later. Most slaves were either prisoners taken in wars in Africa or villagers captured by slave hunters who then sold them to traders. The Triangular Trade from Africa to Europe to America brought thousands of Africans in the dreaded Middle Passage to America.
half- way covenant
After the Puritan community began to lose church members, they softened the standards to become a church member.
Through his prolific writings and his support of witchcraft persecution, he
contributed to the hysteria during the trials.
Harvard 1636, William and Mary, 1693
Harvard was the first college in America and was formed to train local boys for the ministry. William and Mary was founded to train a better class of clerics. Most of America's early colleges were created to train men for the church.
Colonial system of awarding a tract of land, usually fifty acres, to a person who paid for the passage of an indentured servant to the colonies. Some wealthy people in Virginia and other southern colonies accumulated huge tracts of land through this system.
The trade route between Africa and America for slaves. The death rates along the voyage were as high as 20%
A theologian and revivalist in Puritan New England, Edwards exerted profound influence on colonial beliefs through his sermons. His preaching contributed to a movement called the Great Awakening with his emphasis on personal redemption through faith. His most famous sermon would be "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."
Represented the ideal American. Extraordinary in practically every regard and famous for both his inventions and his involvement in politics. He published Poor Richards Almanac (a book of practical sayings, improved the postal system, experimented with electricity/ devised the lightning rod, created the Franklin stove, developed bifocals, a statesman who helped convince Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act, served on the Second Continental Congress & the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence. Only person to sign all 4 great docs of the decade (Declaration of Independence, the treaty of Alliance with France, the Treaty of Paris with Britain, and the U.S. Constitution)
John P. Zenger
Zenger was a newspaper editor in New York who made a written attack on the corrupt royal governor in 1735. He was arrested but found not guilty on the counts of seditious libel.
She was a black poetess who published a book of poems in the late 18th century.
A series of religious revivals in the 1730s through the 1760s led by the ministers Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, among others. The movement swept through all the colonies and was characterized by its emphasis on the sinfulness of humanity and the need for personal redemption through Jesus Christ. The revivals, which included Baptists, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians, extended the scope of religion to the poor, to blacks and to women, many of whom had been excluded from mainstream established churches.
John S. Copley
Copley's portraits of such men as John Hancock, Paul Revere, and Sam Adams were much admired throughout New England and in Europe. His paintings were characterized by brilliant color, texture, and realism.
Act passed by Parliament placing a heavy duty on all sugar, molasses, and rum imported into the American colonies from non-British islands in the Caribbean. Parliament passed the act at the request of planters of the British West Indies, who feared that American trade with other islands would destroy the British sugar industry. The Molasses Act proved ineffective owing to colonial smuggling and Parliament's failure to enforce it. Repealed by the Sugar Act.
Profitable trade route between the northern colonies, west indies and Africa. Sugar was sent from the west indies to north America to be made into rum, and finally the rum was traded for slaves in Africa. Those slaves then went to the west indies. The slaves in the west indies went to the southern plantations.
The Paxton boys lead to the regulator movement, which was a group of hot heads in North Carolina that were against the eastern domination of the colonies affairs.