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PTH ; calcitonin

The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are ________, _______.


The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is __________.

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

LH is also referred to as a __________.


The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is __________.


The _______ are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin


Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of ________.


All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis


The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the _______

hormonal, humoral, neural

The followings are categories of endocrine gland stimulus: ______, _______and ______.

bone & skeletal muscle

The major targets of growth hormone are ________.


The single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood is __________.


Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.


Nucleus is multilobed; functions as a phagocyte; contains fine indistinct granules


Transports CO2 and oxygen


Contains a U- or an S-shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin.


Largest of the WBCs; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections


Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs


Natural anticoagulant found in basophils.


Cancerous condition involving white blood cells.


Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity


Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity


Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream

vascular spasms

The immediate response to blood vessel injury is


The parent cell for all formed elements of blood is

high hematocrit, high blood volume, & high BP

All of the following can be expected with polycythemia

proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte

correct developmental sequence of a RBC

iron-deficiency anemia

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of


regulates erythrocyte production


The inner lining of the heart


Heart muscle


Serous layer covering the heart muscle

parietal layer

The outermost layer of the serous pericardium

SA node

The pacemaker of the heart

AV bundle

Found in the interventricular septum

purkinje fibers

Network found in the ventricular myocardium

AV node

The point in the conduction system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed

aortic valve

Prevents backflow into the left ventricle

tricuspid valve

Prevents backflow into the right atrium

mitral valve

Prevents backflow into the left atrium

pulmonary valve

Prevents backflow into the right ventricle

mitral valve

AV valve with two flaps

tricuspid valve

AV valve with three flaps

AV & semilunar valves

Normal heart sounds are caused by closure of the


Ventricles are not in diastole when the ________valves are open

pump blood with greater pressure

The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to

tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action

If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells

increase heart rate by 25 beats/min.

If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that heart rate would

aorta and pulmonary trunk

Which vessels receive blood during ventricular systole?

isovolumetric contraction phase

________refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers

cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume

The three main factors influencing blood pressure

ADH, ANP, & angiotensin II

The chemicals which help regulate blood pressure include:

hepatic portal circulation

The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called


The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called

respiratory pump, muscular pump, & valves

Factors that aid venous return include:

right side of the head & neck & upper right arm

A thrombus in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood
to the _________.


The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to changes in


Protein-containing fluid within lymphatic vessels.


Stores blood platelets.

thoracic duct

Receives lymph from most of the body.

lymph nodes

Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels


Largest lymphatic organ

Peyer's patches

Isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestine.

secrete surfactant

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The
function of type II is to

pressure within alveoli

Intrapulmonary pressure is the

Boyle's Law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by

Dalton's Law

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases

interfering within the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by

inhaled or exhaled during quiet breathing

Tidal volume is air

vital capacity

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the

pons & medulla

Respiratory control centers are located in the ________, and ________

inspiratory capacity

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called


Bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood is carried as the ________ in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

medial border of the left lung

Cardiac notch is found on the

maintain attachment to thoracic cage & prevent friction

Role of the pleura include:

alveolar & capillary walls & their fused basement membranes

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________, ________ and ________

lower pH, high temperature, & high CO2

Name all factors that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin

internal respiration

The process of exchange of O2 and CO2 at the systemic capillaries of the tissues is referred to as


Propulsion of food through the pharynx and esophagus.


Propulsion of food through the alimentary canal by contraction of successive adjacent segments.


Mixing movements in nonadjacent segments; also provides slow propulsion


Passage of digested products from the lumen of the GI Tract to the blood or lymph; may be active or passive.

hepatic portal system

What system carries venous blood from abdominal organs to the liver?


What serous membrane provides an outer cover for many organs of the abdominopelvic cavity?


Outermost layer of the intraperitoneal organs


Mucous membrane lining


Contains an inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle

muscularis mucosae

A thin layer of smooth muscle of the Mucosa


The substance which forms most of the structure of the tooth


The substance which covers the root of the tooth.


Connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves


Encapsules the crown of the tooth

pulp cavity

Surrounded by dentin that contains pulp


Region that receives the esophagus.


Region that extends superiorly above the cardia and stores food


Region that joins to the Duodenum


mucosal folds



gastric pit

Entrances into the gastric glands.

parietal cell

Gastric gland cells that secrete HCl.

chief cell

Gastric gland cell which secretes Pepsinogen

enteroendocrine cell

Gastric gland cell which secretes chemical messengers

falciform ligament

Ligament which anchors the liver to the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity and the diaphragm; divides the liver into right and left lobes.

greater omentum

Extension of the peritoneum from the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon; covers the small intestine.

lesser omentum

Runs from the liver to the lesser curvature


Double layer of peritoneum that provides vascular and nerve supplies to the viscera

teres ligament

Is a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein, runs along the free edge of the

Peyer's patches

Lymph nodules located in the submucosa of the small intestine and found mainly in the jejunum and ileum are termed

Brunner's glands

The mucous secreting glands of the tunica mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, found mainly in the duodenum


Division of the small intestine that joins the cecum


Permanent infoldings of the Mucosa and Submucosa of the small intestine


Part of the small intestine which receives the hepatopancreatic ampulla

plica circulares

Lacteals are associated with this component of small intestine.

small intestine

The bulk of water and electrolyte absorption occurs in the _________of GI tract.

pyloric sphincter

Controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the duodenum

ileocecal vlave

Valve which controls the entrance of chyme into the ascending colon from the small intestine.

hepatopancreatic sphincter

Regulates the flow of bile into the duodenum from the common bile duct

lower esophageal sphincter

Point where esophagus joins the stomach Cardiac orifice


Before entering the blood, fats are first reconstituted by the absorbing cells and encased in a protein coat. This structure, termed the ____________, is absorbed by the central lacteal.

tunica albuginea

A connective tissue capsule, the _____, immediately surrounds the testis and divides the testis into lobules

rete testis

Complete the following description of the tubule system of the male reproductive tract. Seminiferous tubules → Tubuli Recti → _____ →Efferent ductules → Epididymis

corpus spongeiosum

Column of spongy tissue of the penis through which the urethra passes

ejaculatory duct

The part of the duct system which receives secretions from the seminal vesicle


Primary sex organs of the male reproductive system

tunica albuginae

The fibrous capsule of the testis

tunica vaginalis

Derived from peritoneum

spermatic cord

Structure which carries the ductus deferens, the testicular artery and vein, and autonomic nerve fibers through the inguinal canal.

glans penis

Expanded distal portion of the penis

dartos muscle

Smooth muscle layer in the superficial fascia of the scrotum.

cremaster muscle

Skeletal muscle which elevates the testes toward the body wall.

pampiniform plexus

Network of veins that surrounds the testicular artery within the scrotum; absorbs heat from the arterial blood entering the testes; derived from the testicular vein.

Interstitial (Leydig) cells

Cells of the testis which secrete androgens, principally testosterone

sertoli cells

Nutritive cells associated with the basal epithelial layer of the seminiferous tubules.These cells "feed" spermatids as they differentiate into sperm

secondary spermatocytes

Haploid cells called undergo meiosis II and their daughter cells are called spermatids


Diploid stem cell

inguinal canal

What structure (canal) does the spermatic cord pass through before entering the pelvic cavity?

seminferous tubules

Where in the male reproductive system does spermatogenesis occur?


highly coiled tube-like structure attached to the posterior surface of the testis and which stores spermatozoa while they become mobile. The tube joins the vas deferens

seminal vesicle

Which accessory gland of the male reproductive system adds an alkaline secretion containing many nutrients, such as fructose and ascorbic acid, and a coagulating enzyme to semen?


What hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland controls secretion of testosterone by the testes?

seminal vesicle

Which of the following glands contributes the greatest volume to semen?


The process of formation of a spermatozoan from a spermatid is termed


What hormone or hormones is (are) required for spermatogenesis?

mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, & perineum

Name the structures are of the external genitalia of the female reproductive tract.


The fibromuscular organ of the female reproductive tract which extends from the uterus to the vestibule.


The dome-shaped region of the uterus above and between the points of entrance of the uterine tubes

broad ligament

The peritoneal fold which supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.

ovarian ligament

Ligament which extends from ovary to superior margin of uterus

suspensory ligament

Contains ovarian arteries, veins, and nerves

primary follicle

Oocyte surrounded by multiple layers of cuboidal granulosa cells + thecal cells.

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