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232 terms

A&P Final Review

SUII
STUDY
PLAY
PTH ; calcitonin
The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are ________, _______.
glucogon
The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is __________.
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
LH is also referred to as a __________.
gluconeogenesis
The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is __________.
beta
The _______ are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin
Na+
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of ________.
GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, & PRL
All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis
thyroid
The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the _______
hormonal, humoral, neural
The followings are categories of endocrine gland stimulus: ______, _______and ______.
bone & skeletal muscle
The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
PTH
The single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood is __________.
eosinophil
Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.
neutrophil
Nucleus is multilobed; functions as a phagocyte; contains fine indistinct granules
erythrocyte
Transports CO2 and oxygen
basophil
Contains a U- or an S-shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin.
monocyte
Largest of the WBCs; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections
EPO
Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs
heparin
Natural anticoagulant found in basophils.
leukemia
Cancerous condition involving white blood cells.
anemia
Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity
polycythemia
Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity
embolism
Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream
vascular spasms
The immediate response to blood vessel injury is
hemocytoblast
The parent cell for all formed elements of blood is
high hematocrit, high blood volume, & high BP
All of the following can be expected with polycythemia
proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte
correct developmental sequence of a RBC
iron-deficiency anemia
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of
erythropoiten
regulates erythrocyte production
endocardium
The inner lining of the heart
myocardium
Heart muscle
epicardium
Serous layer covering the heart muscle
parietal layer
The outermost layer of the serous pericardium
SA node
The pacemaker of the heart
AV bundle
Found in the interventricular septum
purkinje fibers
Network found in the ventricular myocardium
AV node
The point in the conduction system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed
aortic valve
Prevents backflow into the left ventricle
tricuspid valve
Prevents backflow into the right atrium
mitral valve
Prevents backflow into the left atrium
pulmonary valve
Prevents backflow into the right ventricle
mitral valve
AV valve with two flaps
tricuspid valve
AV valve with three flaps
AV & semilunar valves
Normal heart sounds are caused by closure of the
semilunar
Ventricles are not in diastole when the ________valves are open
pump blood with greater pressure
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to
tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action
If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells
increase heart rate by 25 beats/min.
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that heart rate would
aorta and pulmonary trunk
Which vessels receive blood during ventricular systole?
isovolumetric contraction phase
________refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers
cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume
The three main factors influencing blood pressure
ADH, ANP, & angiotensin II
The chemicals which help regulate blood pressure include:
hepatic portal circulation
The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called
arterioles
The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called
respiratory pump, muscular pump, & valves
Factors that aid venous return include:
right side of the head & neck & upper right arm
A thrombus in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood
to the _________.
pressure
The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to changes in
lymph
Protein-containing fluid within lymphatic vessels.
spleen
Stores blood platelets.
thoracic duct
Receives lymph from most of the body.
lymph nodes
Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
spleen
Largest lymphatic organ
Peyer's patches
Isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestine.
secrete surfactant
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The
function of type II is to
pressure within alveoli
Intrapulmonary pressure is the
Boyle's Law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by
Dalton's Law
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases
interfering within the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by
inhaled or exhaled during quiet breathing
Tidal volume is air
vital capacity
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the
pons & medulla
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________, and ________
inspiratory capacity
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called
bicarbonate
Bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood is carried as the ________ in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
medial border of the left lung
Cardiac notch is found on the
maintain attachment to thoracic cage & prevent friction
Role of the pleura include:
alveolar & capillary walls & their fused basement membranes
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________, ________ and ________
lower pH, high temperature, & high CO2
Name all factors that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin
internal respiration
The process of exchange of O2 and CO2 at the systemic capillaries of the tissues is referred to as
mastication
Propulsion of food through the pharynx and esophagus.
segmentation
Propulsion of food through the alimentary canal by contraction of successive adjacent segments.
peristalsis
Mixing movements in nonadjacent segments; also provides slow propulsion
absorption
Passage of digested products from the lumen of the GI Tract to the blood or lymph; may be active or passive.
hepatic portal system
What system carries venous blood from abdominal organs to the liver?
peritoneum
What serous membrane provides an outer cover for many organs of the abdominopelvic cavity?
serosa
Outermost layer of the intraperitoneal organs
mucosa
Mucous membrane lining
muscularis
Contains an inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
muscularis mucosae
A thin layer of smooth muscle of the Mucosa
dentin
The substance which forms most of the structure of the tooth
cementum
The substance which covers the root of the tooth.
pulp
Connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves
enamel
Encapsules the crown of the tooth
pulp cavity
Surrounded by dentin that contains pulp
cardia
Region that receives the esophagus.
fundus
Region that extends superiorly above the cardia and stores food
pyloris
Region that joins to the Duodenum
rugae
mucosal folds
body
Mid-portion
gastric pit
Entrances into the gastric glands.
parietal cell
Gastric gland cells that secrete HCl.
chief cell
Gastric gland cell which secretes Pepsinogen
enteroendocrine cell
Gastric gland cell which secretes chemical messengers
falciform ligament
Ligament which anchors the liver to the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity and the diaphragm; divides the liver into right and left lobes.
greater omentum
Extension of the peritoneum from the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon; covers the small intestine.
lesser omentum
Runs from the liver to the lesser curvature
mesentery
Double layer of peritoneum that provides vascular and nerve supplies to the viscera
teres ligament
Is a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein, runs along the free edge of the
Peyer's patches
Lymph nodules located in the submucosa of the small intestine and found mainly in the jejunum and ileum are termed
Brunner's glands
The mucous secreting glands of the tunica mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, found mainly in the duodenum
ileum
Division of the small intestine that joins the cecum
villi
Permanent infoldings of the Mucosa and Submucosa of the small intestine
duodenum
Part of the small intestine which receives the hepatopancreatic ampulla
plica circulares
Lacteals are associated with this component of small intestine.
small intestine
The bulk of water and electrolyte absorption occurs in the _________of GI tract.
pyloric sphincter
Controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the duodenum
ileocecal vlave
Valve which controls the entrance of chyme into the ascending colon from the small intestine.
hepatopancreatic sphincter
Regulates the flow of bile into the duodenum from the common bile duct
lower esophageal sphincter
Point where esophagus joins the stomach Cardiac orifice
micelles
Before entering the blood, fats are first reconstituted by the absorbing cells and encased in a protein coat. This structure, termed the ____________, is absorbed by the central lacteal.
tunica albuginea
A connective tissue capsule, the _____, immediately surrounds the testis and divides the testis into lobules
rete testis
Complete the following description of the tubule system of the male reproductive tract. Seminiferous tubules → Tubuli Recti → _____ →Efferent ductules → Epididymis
corpus spongeiosum
Column of spongy tissue of the penis through which the urethra passes
ejaculatory duct
The part of the duct system which receives secretions from the seminal vesicle
testis
Primary sex organs of the male reproductive system
tunica albuginae
The fibrous capsule of the testis
tunica vaginalis
Derived from peritoneum
spermatic cord
Structure which carries the ductus deferens, the testicular artery and vein, and autonomic nerve fibers through the inguinal canal.
glans penis
Expanded distal portion of the penis
dartos muscle
Smooth muscle layer in the superficial fascia of the scrotum.
cremaster muscle
Skeletal muscle which elevates the testes toward the body wall.
pampiniform plexus
Network of veins that surrounds the testicular artery within the scrotum; absorbs heat from the arterial blood entering the testes; derived from the testicular vein.
Interstitial (Leydig) cells
Cells of the testis which secrete androgens, principally testosterone
sertoli cells
Nutritive cells associated with the basal epithelial layer of the seminiferous tubules.These cells "feed" spermatids as they differentiate into sperm
secondary spermatocytes
Haploid cells called undergo meiosis II and their daughter cells are called spermatids
spermatogonia
Diploid stem cell
inguinal canal
What structure (canal) does the spermatic cord pass through before entering the pelvic cavity?
seminferous tubules
Where in the male reproductive system does spermatogenesis occur?
epididymis
highly coiled tube-like structure attached to the posterior surface of the testis and which stores spermatozoa while they become mobile. The tube joins the vas deferens
seminal vesicle
Which accessory gland of the male reproductive system adds an alkaline secretion containing many nutrients, such as fructose and ascorbic acid, and a coagulating enzyme to semen?
LH
What hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland controls secretion of testosterone by the testes?
seminal vesicle
Which of the following glands contributes the greatest volume to semen?
spermiogenesis
The process of formation of a spermatozoan from a spermatid is termed
GnRH, FSH, LH
What hormone or hormones is (are) required for spermatogenesis?
mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, & perineum
Name the structures are of the external genitalia of the female reproductive tract.
vagina
The fibromuscular organ of the female reproductive tract which extends from the uterus to the vestibule.
fundus
The dome-shaped region of the uterus above and between the points of entrance of the uterine tubes
broad ligament
The peritoneal fold which supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.
ovarian ligament
Ligament which extends from ovary to superior margin of uterus
suspensory ligament
Contains ovarian arteries, veins, and nerves
primary follicle
Oocyte surrounded by multiple layers of cuboidal granulosa cells + thecal cells.
primordial follicle
Oocyte surrounded by a single layer of squamous-like follicle cells.
secondary follicle
Oocyte surrounded by multiple layers of cuboidal granulosa cells with an antrum present and a corona radiata
primary follicle
This follicle has two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells enclosing the oocyte
tertiary/mature/Graafian follicle
Ovarian follicle at its most mature stage that bulges from the surface of the ovary
isthmus
Narrowed medial end which joins to the uterus.
fimbriae
Funnel shaped structure which extends from the ampulla and contains ciliated, finger-like projections that drape ove
the ovary.
mesosalpinx
Short mesentery that supports the uterine tubes
cervix
Narrowed outlet which projects into the vagina.
cervical canal
Cavity of the cervix.
fundus
Rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes
body
Major portion of the uterus
external os
The opening of the cervix into the vagina
vesicouterine pouch
What pouch-like space is located between the uterus and bladder?
endometrium
The inner mucous membrane lining of the Uterus is termed the
muscle tissue- myometrium
Most of the wall of the uterus is made up of what tissue?
stratum functionalis
Which layer of the endometrium undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian hormones?
helicene arteries
What arteries supply blood to the functionalis layer of the Endometrium. These arteries degenerate and regenerate during the female menstrual cycle.
sweat glands
The mammary glands are what type of modified exocrine gland?
meiosis- prophase I
What type of cell division occurs in primary oocytes and is this division completed before birth
produces 2 haploid cells
At puberty, reproductive cycles begin. What happens to the primary oocyte during these cycles?
at puberty
When does the secondary oocyte complete meiosis?
ovulation
In the female menstrual cycle, the process in which the wall of the mature follicle ruptures releasing the secondary oocyte is termed _____.
secondary oocyte
What structure is ovulated?
corpus luteum
Following ovulation, the remaining granulosa and thecal cells differentiate into a new structure called the ________ which secretes mainly progesterone and some estrogen.
10 days
If fertilization does not occur how long does the corpus luteum survive?
fallopian tubes
Fertilization of the secondary oocyte released at ovulation, normally occurs in which part of the female reproductive tract?
FSH & LH
A surge in the secretion of what pituitary gland hormone or hormones is required for ovulation?
progesterone levels fall, depriving endometrium of hormonal support
What triggers the shedding of most of the endometrium and detachment of the stratum functionalis at menses during
the 30-day female reproductive cycle?
gravid
The period of pregnancy is defined as
fetus
The developing offspring is referred to as the
conception; birth
By convention, the gestation period is; From the date of ________ to ________.
embryonic period
From fertilization through week 8, the conceptus is termed the
fetal period
From week 9 to birth, the conceptus is termed the
one sperm contacts oocyte membrane
What is the basis of monospermy (prevents polyspermy)?
morula
What stage of development is described as a ball of 16 cells which has formed within 36 hours after fertilization?
6-7 days after ovulation
At what stage of development does implantation occur?
all of the body's cells
What does the inner cell mass become?
6-7 days
How long does implantation typically take after fertilization has occurred?
3 months
How long does the corpus luteum remain active during pregnancy?
placenta
What structure maintains Estrogen and Progesterone secretion after the corpus luteum degenerates.
decidua basalis
The maternal portion of the placenta is the
villous chorion
The fetal portion of the placenta is the
No
Do the maternal and fetal blood supplies intermix?
yolk sac
Which membrane contributes to the gut (digestive tube)?
amnion
Which membrane protects the embryo from physical trauma and maintains temperature homeostasis
allantois
Structural base for the umbilical cord, becomes part of the urinary bladder
chorion
Helps form the placenta
ectoderm
Nervous system and skin epidermis
mesoderm
Vertebrae and ribs, dermis of skin, skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles
endoderm
Forms epithelial linings of the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital systems
ductus venosus
Bypasses the liver sinusoids and empties oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein into the inferior vena cava where it mixes with deoxygenated blood from the lower parts of fetal body.
foramen ovale
Passageway through the interatrial septum which bypasses the pulmonary circuit
ductus arteriosus
Channel between the pulmonary trunk and aorta which bypasses the pulmonary circuit
high
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to ___ concentration of oxygen.
K+
The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is ______.
high
Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are ____
Na+
The body's water volume is closely tied to the levels of the following ion:
respiratory
Shallow breathing due to obstruction may result in ________ acidosis
K+
Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most _____ is found in the intracellular fluid
genital warts
Human papillomavirus
syphilis
Treponema pallidum
chlamydia
Urethritis in males
genital herpes
Human herpes virus type 2
gonorrhea
Organism responsible for up to half of the diagnosed cases of pelvic inflammatory disease
capacitation
It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after they undergo
aids in the zona pellucida penetration
Proteases and acrosin are enzymes. How do they function in reproduction?
progesterone
Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?
higher
Does fetal Hb have a (higher/lower) binding affinity for oxygen?
NFP= HPg - (OPg + HPc)
Calculate Net Filtration Pressure when given all the parameters
filtration slits
gaps between the podocyte processes
arcuate arteries
arteries that arch over bases of the pyramids
afferent arteriole
supplies blood to the glomerulus
peritubular capillaries
plexus of capillaries around tubules
Bowman's capsule
enlarged proximal end of nephron
ADH; pituitary gland
Consumption of alcohol increases urine production by inhibiting the release of ________ from ________.
juxtaglomerular cells
Autoregulation in the kidney involves changes in the degree of constriction of ________
urine
When the tubular maximum for a substance is exceeded, the excess remains in the ________.
podocytes
The visceral layer of the Bowman's capsule is composed of what type of specialized cells?
reabsorption
movement of substances from filtrate back into blood
renal blood flow
amount of blood flowing through kidneys per minute
urine
non-reabsorbed filtrate
filtration fraction
amount of plasma filtered through filtration membrane
filtration
movement of plasma across filtration membrane