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PTH ; calcitonin
The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are ________, _______.
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of ________.
The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the _______
hormonal, humoral, neural
The followings are categories of endocrine gland stimulus: ______, _______and ______.
Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.
Contains a U- or an S-shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin.
Largest of the WBCs; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections
high hematocrit, high blood volume, & high BP
All of the following can be expected with polycythemia
proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte
correct developmental sequence of a RBC
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of
pump blood with greater pressure
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to
tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action
If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells
increase heart rate by 25 beats/min.
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that heart rate would
isovolumetric contraction phase
________refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers
cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume
The three main factors influencing blood pressure
hepatic portal circulation
The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called
right side of the head & neck & upper right arm
A thrombus in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood
to the _________.
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The
function of type II is to
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases
interfering within the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by
Bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood is carried as the ________ in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
alveolar & capillary walls & their fused basement membranes
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________, ________ and ________
lower pH, high temperature, & high CO2
Name all factors that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin
The process of exchange of O2 and CO2 at the systemic capillaries of the tissues is referred to as
Propulsion of food through the alimentary canal by contraction of successive adjacent segments.
Passage of digested products from the lumen of the GI Tract to the blood or lymph; may be active or passive.
What serous membrane provides an outer cover for many organs of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Ligament which anchors the liver to the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity and the diaphragm; divides the liver into right and left lobes.
Extension of the peritoneum from the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon; covers the small intestine.
Lymph nodules located in the submucosa of the small intestine and found mainly in the jejunum and ileum are termed
The mucous secreting glands of the tunica mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, found mainly in the duodenum
Valve which controls the entrance of chyme into the ascending colon from the small intestine.
Before entering the blood, fats are first reconstituted by the absorbing cells and encased in a protein coat. This structure, termed the ____________, is absorbed by the central lacteal.
A connective tissue capsule, the _____, immediately surrounds the testis and divides the testis into lobules
Complete the following description of the tubule system of the male reproductive tract. Seminiferous tubules → Tubuli Recti → _____ →Efferent ductules → Epididymis
Structure which carries the ductus deferens, the testicular artery and vein, and autonomic nerve fibers through the inguinal canal.
Network of veins that surrounds the testicular artery within the scrotum; absorbs heat from the arterial blood entering the testes; derived from the testicular vein.
Nutritive cells associated with the basal epithelial layer of the seminiferous tubules.These cells "feed" spermatids as they differentiate into sperm
Haploid cells called undergo meiosis II and their daughter cells are called spermatids
What structure (canal) does the spermatic cord pass through before entering the pelvic cavity?
highly coiled tube-like structure attached to the posterior surface of the testis and which stores spermatozoa while they become mobile. The tube joins the vas deferens
Which accessory gland of the male reproductive system adds an alkaline secretion containing many nutrients, such as fructose and ascorbic acid, and a coagulating enzyme to semen?
What hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland controls secretion of testosterone by the testes?
mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, & perineum
Name the structures are of the external genitalia of the female reproductive tract.
The fibromuscular organ of the female reproductive tract which extends from the uterus to the vestibule.
The dome-shaped region of the uterus above and between the points of entrance of the uterine tubes
Oocyte surrounded by multiple layers of cuboidal granulosa cells with an antrum present and a corona radiata
This follicle has two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells enclosing the oocyte
Ovarian follicle at its most mature stage that bulges from the surface of the ovary
Funnel shaped structure which extends from the ampulla and contains ciliated, finger-like projections that drape ove
Which layer of the endometrium undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian hormones?
What arteries supply blood to the functionalis layer of the Endometrium. These arteries degenerate and regenerate during the female menstrual cycle.
meiosis- prophase I
What type of cell division occurs in primary oocytes and is this division completed before birth
produces 2 haploid cells
At puberty, reproductive cycles begin. What happens to the primary oocyte during these cycles?
In the female menstrual cycle, the process in which the wall of the mature follicle ruptures releasing the secondary oocyte is termed _____.
Following ovulation, the remaining granulosa and thecal cells differentiate into a new structure called the ________ which secretes mainly progesterone and some estrogen.
Fertilization of the secondary oocyte released at ovulation, normally occurs in which part of the female reproductive tract?
FSH & LH
A surge in the secretion of what pituitary gland hormone or hormones is required for ovulation?
progesterone levels fall, depriving endometrium of hormonal support
What triggers the shedding of most of the endometrium and detachment of the stratum functionalis at menses during
the 30-day female reproductive cycle?
What stage of development is described as a ball of 16 cells which has formed within 36 hours after fertilization?
What structure maintains Estrogen and Progesterone secretion after the corpus luteum degenerates.
Which membrane protects the embryo from physical trauma and maintains temperature homeostasis
Bypasses the liver sinusoids and empties oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein into the inferior vena cava where it mixes with deoxygenated blood from the lower parts of fetal body.
Channel between the pulmonary trunk and aorta which bypasses the pulmonary circuit
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to ___ concentration of oxygen.
Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are ____
Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most _____ is found in the intracellular fluid
It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after they undergo
aids in the zona pellucida penetration
Proteases and acrosin are enzymes. How do they function in reproduction?
ADH; pituitary gland
Consumption of alcohol increases urine production by inhibiting the release of ________ from ________.
Autoregulation in the kidney involves changes in the degree of constriction of ________
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