AP Gov constitution & Federalism
Terms in this set (43)
Nation's basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens
Declaration of Independence
Document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. -John Locke
Consent of the Governed
According to John Locke, the required basis for government
the Idea that certain things are out of bounds for government because of the natural rights of citizens
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the U.S. Established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with state legislatures
A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by revolutionary war Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings
Sets forth the institutional structure of U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Papers No. 10
New Jersey plan
The proposal at the constitutional convention that called for equal representation of each state in congress regardless of the states populations
The proposal at the constitutional convention that called for representation of each state in congress in proportion to the state's share of the U.S. population
The compromise reached at the constitutional convention that established two houses of congress: House of Representatives (representation is based on a state's populations) and the Senate (each state has 2 representatives).
Writ of Habeas Corpus
A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
Separation of Powers
Important part of the Madisonian Model that requires each of the three branches of government to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others.
Checks and Balances
Important part of the Madisonian Model designed to limit government's power by requiring that power must be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually check one another's activities.
A form of government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. People select representatives who make laws
Supporters of the U.S. Constitution
Opponents of the American Constitution. Argued that the Constitution was a class-based document, that it would erode fundamental liberties, and that it would weaken the power of the states.
A collection of 85 articles to defend the constitution in detail
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments of the Constitution. These amendments define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and offer protections against arbitrary searches by the police and being held without talking to a lawyer
Equal Rights Amendment
Constitutional amendment stating that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the U.S. or by any state on account if sex. Failed to acquire the necessary support from 3/4 of the state legislaturs
Marbury v. Madison
1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of congress, in this case the judiciary act of 1789
Power of the courts to determine whether acts of congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. constitution.
A way of organizing a nation so that two levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people.
A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government.
The workings of the federal system - the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments.
Article 6 of the Constitution, which makes the constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
The constitutional amendment stating the powers not delegated to the U.S. by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to states respectively, or to the people.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 supreme court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments.
Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the constitution; for congress these powers are listed in article 1, section 8, and include the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes.
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the constitution. The constitution states that congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution". Many federal policies are justified on the basis of implied powers
The final paragraph of Article 1, Section 8, of the constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carryh out the enumerated powers
Gibbons v. Ogden
A landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article 1, Section 8, of the constitution giving congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.
Full Faith and Credit
A clause in article 4, section 1, of the constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgements rendered by the courts of other states
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
Privileges and Immunities
A clause in Article 4, section 2, of the constitution according to citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states.
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments
Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes or "categories," of state and local spending.
Federal grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications.
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations.
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.
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