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Campbell Biology Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Campbell Biology vocabulary and questions
STUDY
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Light Microscope
visible light is passed through a specimen, creating a magnified image through a lens with a resolution up to 0.2 µm
Magnification
increase of apparent size of an object
Micrograph
image taken from a microscope
Cell Theory
all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells
Electron Microscope
focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen, can view structures as small as 2nm, Developed in the 1950's (up to 10,000,000X
Scanning Electron Microscope
uses a beam of electrons to scan the surface of a cell
Transmission Electron Microscope
used to study internal details of structure
Prokaryotic Cells
no nucleus-bacteria and archaea
Eukaryotic Cells
have a membrane enclosed nucleus-protists, fungi, plants, animals
Chromosomes
carry genes made of DNA of cell
Ribosomes
tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes
Cytoplasym
the interior both types of cells
Nucleoid
similar to nucleus, not enclosed by membrane, contains DNA coiled inside
Flagella
locomotion organelles of some bacteria, used to propel cell through its environment
Organelles
little organs which perform specific functions in the cell
Cellular Metabolism
chemical activities of the cells, occurs within the organelles
Nucleus
core of cell, contains most of the cell's DNA, controls most of cell's activities by directing protein synthesis
Chromatin
DNA and proteins that form chromosomes-(when cell is not dividing)
Nuclear Envelope
the double membrane enclosing the nucleus perforated with pores to regulate traffic with the cytoplasm
Nucleolus
region in nucleus that synthesizes RNA, proteins imported from cytoplasm to form the subunits of ribosomes
Endomembrane System
organelles inside the membrane of a eukaryotic cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum
extensive network in the eukaryotic cell continuous with outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosomes studded and ribosome free regions, within cytoplasm
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER area lacking ribosomes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER area rough with ribosomes(who make membrane proteins)
Glyoprotein
protein synthesized by ribosomes with sugar chain attached
Transport Vesicle
vesicle that travels from one part of the cell to another
Golgi Apparatus
modify, store, and ship from the ER, Cis face is receiving, Trans is shipping
Lysosome
membranous sac of digestive enzymes, contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles
Vacuoles
large vesicles that have a variety of functions
Peroxisomes
metabolic compartments that transfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen producing hyrogen peroxide
Mitochondria
organelles that carry out cellular respiration, converts chemical energy of foods into chemical energy for the cell (ATP) "POWER HOUSE"
Mitochondrial Matrix
inner membrane of mitochondria containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle, ----has enzymes for cellular respiration----
Cristae
the folds that increase membrane's surface area, enhancing the mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP
Chloroplasts
the photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes
Stroma
thick fluid containing chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes
Thylakoid
a network of interworking sacs inside the cholorplast
Granum
a stack of thylakoids--'solar power packs'
Endosymbiont Theory
states that the mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that begin living within larger cells
Cytoskeleton
a network of protein fibers extending through the cytoplasm of a cell, acting like a skeleton
Microfilaments
'actin filaments' solid rods composed of mostly globular proteins called actin arranged in a double chain
Intermediate Filaments
made of fibrous proteins that super coil into thicker coils reinforce into cell shape and to anchor certain organelles
Microtubules
straight hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins ---Found in cilia and flagella---
Cilia
used for locomotion, tails on cells, short, numerous, oar like
Extracellular Matrix
holds cell membranes together, protects and supports the plasma membrane
Integrins
transmembrane protein attaches the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton
Cellwall
disguishes the animal cell from the plant cell, protects the cell, provides skeletal support, keeps the plant upright
Plasmodesmata
channels between cells for transport
Anton Van Leewenhoek
used hand grinded lenses for a microscope
Compound Microscope
magnifies up to 1000X
Robert Hooke
coined term 'cellulae' (cells in cork he examined)
eukaryote
means true kernal
prokaryote
means before the kernal
Vesicles
sacs made of membrane in the cytoplasm
Cis
receiving side of Golgi Apparatus
Trans
sending side of Golgi Apparatus
Central Vacuole
helps the cell grow in size by absorbing water and enlarging
Apoptosis
self-destruct command for lysosomes in cell
ATP
adenosine triphosphate-cell's sugar
Flagella
longer, fewer, whip-like, used for cell propulsion