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Chapter 4 Campbell Biology vocabulary and questions

Light Microscope

visible light is passed through a specimen, creating a magnified image through a lens with a resolution up to 0.2 µm


increase of apparent size of an object


image taken from a microscope

Cell Theory

all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells

Electron Microscope

focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen, can view structures as small as 2nm, Developed in the 1950's (up to 10,000,000X

Scanning Electron Microscope

uses a beam of electrons to scan the surface of a cell

Transmission Electron Microscope

used to study internal details of structure

Prokaryotic Cells

no nucleus-bacteria and archaea

Eukaryotic Cells

have a membrane enclosed nucleus-protists, fungi, plants, animals


carry genes made of DNA of cell


tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes


the interior both types of cells


similar to nucleus, not enclosed by membrane, contains DNA coiled inside


locomotion organelles of some bacteria, used to propel cell through its environment


little organs which perform specific functions in the cell

Cellular Metabolism

chemical activities of the cells, occurs within the organelles


core of cell, contains most of the cell's DNA, controls most of cell's activities by directing protein synthesis


DNA and proteins that form chromosomes-(when cell is not dividing)

Nuclear Envelope

the double membrane enclosing the nucleus perforated with pores to regulate traffic with the cytoplasm


region in nucleus that synthesizes RNA, proteins imported from cytoplasm to form the subunits of ribosomes

Endomembrane System

organelles inside the membrane of a eukaryotic cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum

extensive network in the eukaryotic cell continuous with outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosomes studded and ribosome free regions, within cytoplasm

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

ER area lacking ribosomes

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

ER area rough with ribosomes(who make membrane proteins)


protein synthesized by ribosomes with sugar chain attached

Transport Vesicle

vesicle that travels from one part of the cell to another

Golgi Apparatus

modify, store, and ship from the ER, Cis face is receiving, Trans is shipping


membranous sac of digestive enzymes, contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles


large vesicles that have a variety of functions


metabolic compartments that transfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen producing hyrogen peroxide


organelles that carry out cellular respiration, converts chemical energy of foods into chemical energy for the cell (ATP) "POWER HOUSE"

Mitochondrial Matrix

inner membrane of mitochondria containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle, ----has enzymes for cellular respiration----


the folds that increase membrane's surface area, enhancing the mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP


the photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes


thick fluid containing chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes


a network of interworking sacs inside the cholorplast


a stack of thylakoids--'solar power packs'

Endosymbiont Theory

states that the mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that begin living within larger cells


a network of protein fibers extending through the cytoplasm of a cell, acting like a skeleton


'actin filaments' solid rods composed of mostly globular proteins called actin arranged in a double chain

Intermediate Filaments

made of fibrous proteins that super coil into thicker coils reinforce into cell shape and to anchor certain organelles


straight hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins ---Found in cilia and flagella---


used for locomotion, tails on cells, short, numerous, oar like

Extracellular Matrix

holds cell membranes together, protects and supports the plasma membrane


transmembrane protein attaches the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton


disguishes the animal cell from the plant cell, protects the cell, provides skeletal support, keeps the plant upright


channels between cells for transport

Anton Van Leewenhoek

used hand grinded lenses for a microscope

Compound Microscope

magnifies up to 1000X

Robert Hooke

coined term 'cellulae' (cells in cork he examined)


means true kernal


means before the kernal


sacs made of membrane in the cytoplasm


receiving side of Golgi Apparatus


sending side of Golgi Apparatus

Central Vacuole

helps the cell grow in size by absorbing water and enlarging


self-destruct command for lysosomes in cell


adenosine triphosphate-cell's sugar


longer, fewer, whip-like, used for cell propulsion

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