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mutants unable to synthesize an essential metabolite that is synthesized by wild-type or phototrophic of the same species
grow at one temperature not another; most are heat sensitive, some cold sensitive
viable when a second genetic factor (suppressor) is present, but they're non-viable in the absence of the suppressor
mutation resulting from tautomeric shifts in the bases of DNA involve the replacement of a purine in one strand of DNA with the other purine and the replacement of a pyrimidine in the complementary strand with the other pyrimidine
high energy rays collide with atoms and cause the release of electrons = positively charged free radicals or ions collide with other molecules and release additional electrons
genes that specify products of this type are continually being expressed constitutively
process of turning on the expression of genes in response to a substance in the environment
positive control mechanism
product of the regulator gene is required to turn on the expression of one or more structural genes (specifying the amino acid sequences of enzymes or structural proteins)
negative control mechanism
product of the regulator gene is necessary to shut off the expression of structural genes
assures that glucose is metabolized when present, in preference to other less efficient energy sources
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