95 terms

World Geography Final Vocabulary

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cardinal directions
north, south, east and west
intermediate directions
northeast, southeast, northwest, southwest
relative location
using another place to show where a place is
absolute location
the position on the earth in which a place can be found
distortion
it is impossible to flatten the earth without there being distortion
archipelago
group or chain of islands clustered together
canyon
a deep valley with steep sides carved by a river
delta
flat plain of mud or sand between branches of a river
fijord
narrow deep inlets of the sea set between high rocky cliffs
isthmus
A narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas
island
piece of land surrounded by water on all sides
mesa
flat top and steep walls, stands alone
mountain range
a line of mountains connected by high ground
peninsula
a body of land surrounded by water on all 3 sides
plain
large flat land
plateau
flat area at a high elevation
reef
ridge of jagged rock of land above/ below surface
volcano
mountainous vent in earths crust
valley
low place between mountains
ice cap
permanent ice and snow ; no plant life
tundra
treeless plain with grasses, mosses , and scrub adapted to a cold climate
mixed forest
a mix of coniferous and deciduous trees
deciduous forest
trees with broad, flat leaves that are shed before winter
temperate grasslands
short and tall grasses adapted to cool climates
chaparral
small trees and bushes adapted to a mediterranean climate
desert scrub
small trees, bushes, and other plants adapted to a dry climate
desert
arid region with few plants
tropical grassland
grasses and scattered trees adapted to a tropical wet and dry climate
broadleaf evergreen forest
tall trees with large leaves that remain green all year
highlands
vegetation varies with latitude and elevation
basin
a depression or dip in earths surface
bay
a body of water partly enclosed by land
glacier
long lasting, slow moving, river of ice on land
gulf
part of the ocean partly surrounded by land
lake
water surrounded on all sides by land
river
large flowing body of water
strait
narrow strip of water connecting bodies of water
longitude
meridians that measure east and west on a map or a globe
latitude
parallels that measure north and south on a map or globe
vegetation
the plants and trees in an area
climate
the usual weather conditions in a particular place or region
population density
the number of people living per unit of an area
government
the system by which a country, state, or community is ruled
economic activity
any action that relates to the making, buying, and selling of goods and services
religion
the belief and worship of a higher being with controlling power
language
the way a group of people communicate
cultural convergence
the contact and interaction of one culture with another
cultural divergence
the restriction of a culture from outside influences
cultural hearth
an area where new ideas and innovations spring up and spread to other parts of the world
totalitarianism
private and public life is controlled by the political party in power
theocracy
a form of government centered on a god or gods; ruling religious authority that oversees the creation and enforcement of laws
democracy
citizens are involved in government and politics
dictatorship
the power is in the hands of one individual with full authority to enforce and create any laws they desire
traditional economy
all goods and services produced by people for their own village
market economy
free enterprise; gives freedom to individuals and groups to decide what will be produced and prices of that
command economy
the economy is controlled by a single, central government that decide what and how much to produce, where it will be located, and the prices
mixed economy
combines traditional, command, and market economies
renewable resources
a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace even if it is used
nonrenewable resources
a natural resource that cannot be replaced once used
clean energy
energy that doesn't pollute the environment when used
water power
uses the energy of falling water to move machines or generate electricity
solar power
collecting the suns energy to convert to power
wind power
wind used to create energy
fossil fuels
any one of several non renewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals used for fuel
nuclear energy
a type of energy produced by fission
imports
goods brought into the country from a foreign country because of scarcity
exports
good sent out of the country to other countries because of surplus
surplus
when you have too much of something
scarcity
shortness of supply, something that is needed
immigration
people moving into a country
migration
movement of individuals from one place to another
emigration
people leaving a country to live elsewhere
push factors
the reasons why an individual was forced or chose to leave an area
pull factors
why an individual chose the place they did
formal regions
a group of places that have similar attributes such as political regions
functional regions
a group of places connected by movement
vernacular regions
a group of places defined by peoples feelings and attitudes
anarchy
political disorder and violence ; lawlessness
desalination
removing salt from sea water to drink
drip irrigation
precisely controlled amounts of water drip onto plants
embargo
a severe restriction of trade with other countries
falaj system
an underground system of canals
fertile crescent
a region in the middle east where farming began
infrastructure
the basic support facilities of a community or a country, such as roads or bridges
mandate
authorizing a nation to govern a territory
militia
a citizen army
monotheism
the belief in one God
OPEC
organization of petroleum exporting countries
PLO
the palestinian liberal organization
potash
a mineral used in explosives and fertilizer
secular
worldly, not relating to religion
self determination
the right of the people to decide their futures
trade deficit
imports more than exports
trade surplus
exports mote than imports
zionism
founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state
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