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Terms in this set (219)
mineralsregulate physiological processes, major and tracemajor mineralslarger quantities of mineralstrace mineralssmaller amounts of mineralswaterneed in larger quantities than any other nutrient60what is the percentage of water in the bodywomenwho has more fat in the bodymenwho has more carbs, protein, vitamins, and minerals in the bodyorganicwhat compound contains carbonessentialnutrients that must be obtained via the dietnon essentialnutrients made by the bodyATPunit of energyATPnutrients provide energy via9amount of energy in fat (cal/g)4amount of energy in protein (cal/g)4amount of energy in carbs (cal/g)0amount of energy in water (cal/g)7amount of energy in alcohol (cal/g)13how many organic vitamins are therewater and fattypes of vitaminsvitamin Enuts and seeds, antioxidant, vulnerable to destruction (heat/light)mineralsin its original elemental formmineralsdo not yield energy, 16 essential, indestructiblewatermedium for nearly all body activitiesDietary Reference Intakesprovide recommended intake of specific nutrients for healthy people in different life stages, standards defined for energy, nutrients, physical activity, U.S. and Canada, apply to healthy peopleEstimated Average Requirementsaverage amount sufficient for 50 percent of populationRecommended Dietary AllowanceRecommendations to meet needs of most healthy people, 98 percent of populationAdequate Intakesto avoid disease, expected to exceed average requirements, insufficient scientific evidenceTolerable Upper Intake LevelsUL, point where nutrient is likely to be toxic, helps protect against overconsumptionEstimated Energy Requirementaverage dietary energy intake to maintain energy balance, healthy body weight and physical activityAcceptable Macronutrient Distribution Rangesadequate energy and nutrients, reduce risk of chronic diseasesmacronutrientscarbs, fat, proteinnutrition assessmentcomprehensive analysis of a person's nutritional statusanthropometricmeasurements of height and weightomega 3 fatty acidswhat does seafood have that rocksnutrient densefoods with high amounts of nutrients compared to kcal value. more nutrients/gram sam amount of caloriesempty caloriefoods that provide excess kcal in relation to nutrientsdiscretionary calorie allowanceamount of energy needed for body weightserving sizean amount of a food that is based on the USDA standardsportion sizethe amount of food an individual chooses to eat or that is served at one timemyplatefood guidance system that creates dietary patterns that meet the dietary guidelinesidentity, contents, ingredients, manufacturer info, nutritional info5 mandatory components of a food labelvitamin a, vitamin c, calcium, iron, total fat, sodium, carbs, protein, calories, servingitems required to post on nutritional factsfood additivechemical or other substance that becomes a part of food product either intentionally or accidentallydescending order by weightingredients are listen byexcellent or high sourcegreater than 20 percent of DVgood source10 to 19 percent of DVpoor sourceless than 10 percent of DVreducedless than 25 percent of nutrient or calories than regularfat freeless than .5 grams/fat per servinglow fat3 g or less/servingsodium freeless than 5 mg of sodium/servinglow sodium140 mg or less/servingsugar freeless than .5 g of sugar/servingmouthdigestion starts in themouth and small intestinecarbs are broken down in thestomach and small intestineprotein digestion takes place in thepancreas, small intestine, and mouthbreakdown of fats in theliverbile is produced in thegall bladderbile is stored in thebolusfood becomes chewed into acarbssalivary glands digesttracheaepiglottis prevents food from entering thecardiac sphincterfood has to pass through this right before it gets to the stomachcardiac sphincterkeeps food in stomach to prevent heartburnstomachwhich digestive gland has the strongest muscleschymebolus + HClmeds, hormonesfactors that affect peristalsisstomach acidsgastric juicehclbreaks down proteinsthick wallshow is the stomach protecteddestroyed enzymes in stomachwhen does digestion of carbs stopdenaturedwhat happens during lipid digestionsegmentationcircular muscle contractionhormones or foodsphincters are controlled bybasicpH of pancreatic juicespancreatic juicesneutralize stomach acidcarbs, proteins, fatspancreas/small intestine digestcarbs, proteins, fats3 macronutrientsbasicfrom the intestines on, what is pH of chymeacidicpH of gastric juicewater retentionkeeps food moving to be excretedintestinal bacteriapartially breaks down some foods and turns some parts into gaswater and dissolved saltsreabsorbed back into the bodylarge intestinefiber is broken down in thegall bladderbile emulsifies fat in thesmall intestinewhere does most absorption take placesimple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transportwhat are the 3 ways that nutrients are absorbedosmosis, small fatsexample of simple diffusionincreasing surface areawhy the structure of microvilli and villineedvilli cells regulate nutrient absorption based onpumpstransporters, proteins, help move stufffood combiningeating more than one macronutrient at a timehepatic portal veinbrings nutrients (water soluble) from digestive tract to livervascular systemthe blood stream is in thechylomicronscarriersblood streamwhere do water soluble nutrients golymphatic systemwhere do fat soluble nutrients goliverwhat is the first stop after the digestive system for water soluble nutrientsone way routeno pump, circulation between cellssubclavian veinfat soluble nutrients enter the bloodstream throughls, sv, bsfat soluble nutrients go fromglucosequick source of energy because right to blood streamendocrinesystem that includes hormones and enzymesnervous and endocrinesystems that coordinate digestion and absorptiongastrinwhat stimulates the stomach to secrete HCl when food enters the stomachsecretinstimulates pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate to raise the PH when presence of chyme stimulates duodenumbicarbonateraises pHCCKstimulated by fat in the intestine , stimulates fat emulsification and slows down motilitystomachidentifies food, stimulates muscle movement, and gastric secretionsintestinespyloric sphincter identifies passage of chyme, feedback to pancreaspancreasnerves regulate pancreatic secretions in thenervous systemnerve feedback and action, physical, tells hormones to do their thingchokingfailure of epiglottis causescolonvegan to meat: body isn't used to digesting it, stuff hangs out indehydrationvomiting and diarrhea takes out water to causewaterwhat helps things pass through digestion systemceliac diseaseautoimmune disease, inflammation of small intestine, inability to process gluten, body confused if it should attack or notconstipationfailure of intestinal tract moving things alongdiverticulosispockets in colonGERDprevented by sitting up straight, spicy food is secondary because already problems with esophagusbaretts esophagussign of heightened chance of esophageal cancerulcersholes, caused by bacterial infection anti inflammatory drugs, excessive gastric acid secretionsimple and complex2 types of carbsmonosaccharidessimple sugars, 1 sugar moleculeglucosemost common to all disaccharides, primary energy source, 50 percent of all energy the body usesfructosesweetest, in fruitsgalactoseonly naturally occurring in small amounts, infrequentdisaccharides2 sugarscondensationwhat reactions are disaccharides formed inhydrolysiswhat reactions are disaccharides broken down through with energycondensationeliminating water moleculeshydrolysisadding water moleculescarbohydratemaltose is produced as a byproduct of _______ digestionsucrosewhich disaccharide is the sweetestlactosewhat disaccharide does not occur in plantsglycogenquick use of energy, storage form of energy in animals, branchingstarchlong, linear, storage of energy in plantswater solublemoved, dissolved with waterfibersplant foodsgelsviscous formsresistant starchresists digestionfunctionalwhat kind of fiber is non naturally occurringstarch bondsv bonds, can break downcellulose bondsn bonds, no enzymes to break these downprovide energyultimate goal of carb digestionsalivary amylaseenzyme starting chemical process in carb digestionmouthcarb digestion starts in thestomachsalivary amylase is denatured, carb digestion stops in theacid tolerantenzymes in the stomach arefiberhelps tell nervous system to keep digestion movingblood streamcarbs are digested straight to thegascarbs causebilefile can trapbilereleased to digest fat, made up of cholesterolvillimonosaccharides enter capillaries, travel to the portal vein of the liver in theglucosecan be absorbed by the mouth24 hoursglycogen can only be stored forliver and musclesgylcogen is formed in theanabolic and catabolicthe two types of metabolic reactionsmetabolismsum total of all of the chemical reactions that go on in living cellsanabolicuses energy to put 2 glucose into glycogencatabolicproduces energy, breaks down glycogen into glucose to produce energyhigh energy bondshigh phosphate groups haveenergyadd or subtract phosphate groups forcofactorsmolecules that facilitate enzyme actionorganicvitamins areinorganicminerals arecytosolthe start of metabolism is in thecytosolcarbs are broken down in the ______ of the cellcytosolpyruvate is made in themitochondriaenergy is created in the _______ of the cellglycolysisprocess of converting glucose into pyruvatecytosolglycolysis occurs in the _____ of the cell2glycolysis uses __ ATP4glycolysis produced __ ATP2glycolysis nets __ ATP2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, hydrogenend products of glycolysis3 carbon moleculespyruvates areanaerobicno oxygenaerobicoxygenanaerobic metabolismconverting pyruvate to lactateaerobic metabolismconverting pyruvate to Acetyl CoAmuscles and liveranaerobic metabolism takes place in thelactatecannot be used for energy in musclescori cycleconverting lactate to glucose and reversiblehydrogenpyruvate accepts __________ to convert pyruvate to lactatenois aerobic metabolism reversibleaerobic metabolismpyruvate to acetyl CoAATPacetyl CoA enters TCA pathway to makestorageacetyl CoA is used for fatty acid synthesis forinner mitochondriaTCA cycle occurs in theb vitaminscoenzymes that carry electrons to the electron transport chainhydrogensbreakdown of acetyl CoA releasesATPthe electron transport chain generatesinsulinif too much glucose, ________ is released to store itglucagonif not enough glucose, _________ starts releasing the stored glucosebeta cellshelp with insulin releasealpha cellshelp release of glucagoncellsinsulin regulates by moving glucose out of the bloodstream and intoglucoseglucagon regulates by breaking down glycogen intodowninsulin brings blood sugarupglucagon brings blood sugarglycemic indexthe response of insulin to carb loadglycemic loadamount of carbs/g x GI / 100non nutritive sweetenersdon't provide same amount of caloriessugar alcoholssweet taste, little calories, GI distressproteinsadequate carbohydrate intake will spare body ________ from being used as an energy sourceglucosewithout carbs in the diet, proetin is broken down to makeketone bodiessource of energy from inadequate carbohydrate intake, 80% power instead of 100% from glucose