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28 terms

Chapter 16 - The Endocrine System

Dr. Cooper's Class
STUDY
PLAY
What are the differences of endocrine regulation and neural regulation.
Hormonal regulation response is a lot slower but the effects tend to last longer than neural regulation
Name the 5 endocrine glands
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal
How are hormones transported?
through the blood
what is the difference in exocrine glands and endocrine?
exocrine excrete things such as sweat and saliva out of the body whereas endocrine glads excrete things like hormones into the bloodstream
what has both neural and hormonal functions?
the hypothalamus
long-distance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph
hormones
chemicals that exert effects on the same cells tat secrete them
autocrines
locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them
paracrines
are autocrines and paracrines considered to be part of the endocrine system?
No
what are the two main classes of hormones?
amino acid based hormones and steroids
what are the 4 amino acid-based hormones
amines, thyroxine, peptides, and proteins
what are steroids synthesized from?
cholesterol
what are the two steroidal hormones?
gonadal and adrenocortical
What are the 5 Hormonal actions on target cells
1. Alter plasma membrane permeability, of membrane potential by opening or closing ion channels
2. Stimulate synthesis of proteins or regulatory molecules
3. Activate or deactivate enzyme systems
4. Induce secretory activity
5. Stimulate mitosis
What are the steps of cAMP signaling mechanism
1. Hormone binds to the receptor
2. Receptor activates G protein
3. G protein activates adenylate cylase
4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP
5. cAMP activates protein kinases
what are the 3 ways hormones are stimulated
humoral, neural, hormonal
Name the 6 Anterior pituitary hormones
GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL
how are the anterior pituitary hormones classified?
all are proteins
what produces Growth hormone?
somatotrophs
what regulates Growth hormone?
GHRH- growth hormone releasing hormone
GHIH- grwoth hormone inhibiting hormone
what are the effects of hyper secretion of GH
gigantism
what are the effects of hypo secretion
pituitary dwarfism
what produces thyroid stimulating hormone?
thyrotrophs
what stimulates TSH
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
what are the gonadotropins?
FSH, LH,
where is prolactin secreted
the lactotrophs
what are the effects of prolactin?
stimulates milk productoin
what is prolactin primarily controlled by?
prolactin-inhibiting hormone