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TEAS REVIEW EVERYTHING 2018 - BASICALLY MY NOTES/ THOUGHTS - SCIENCE PORTION
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Terms in this set (99)
Breathing - Respiratory System
Diaphragm, and intercostal muscles CONTRACT to expand the lungs.
Breathing process is controlled by the MEDULLA OBLONGTA.
(it maintains the level of CO2 in blood, signals the breathing rate to increase when these levels are too high)
Functions - Respiratory System
we have an exchange of gases that occur within ALVEOLI's
we supply the body with O2 and get rid of CO2
we filter air
we have chemoreceptors in the nasal cavity that respond to airborne chemicals (is this why we sneeze??)
we have HYPERVENTILATION (increases blood PH during acidosis)
we have HYPOVENTILATION(decreases blood PH during alkaldolcis)
include the diaphragm, and the intercostal muscles (these both work together to contract)
the diaphragm is dome shaped separating thoracic and abdominal cavities
the intercostal muscles are between ribs.
LUNGS (right & left)
houses the bronchi, bronchial network which terminate into millions of alveoli (which are the airsacs, and blood capillaries surrounding them.......this is where you see gas exchange occur)
Right (3 lobes)
Left (2 lobes ; with room for the heart on the left side of the body)
Lungs are surrounded by pleural mem. (which reduces friction when breathing)
AIRWAY - RESPIRATORY
includes all of upper and lower.....it's lined with cilia (which traps debris, and microbes)
UPPER & LOWER - RESPIRATORY
in the upper you'll see: nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx (aka throat), larynx(voice box)
in the lower you'll see: trachea(windpipe), lungs, bronchial tree.
3 main planes: transverse, sagittal, coronal
Transverse ; you'll see it's dividing upper and lower.
Sagittal ; you'll see it's dividing vertical into RIGHT and LEFT.
Coronal ; you'll see it's dividing from FRONT to BACK (anterior vs posterior)
Review TERMS OF DIRECTION
TISSUES (nervous, epithelial, connective, muscle)
there are 7 types
blood, nervous, epithelial, connective, muscle, cartilage, bone.
(review notes for functions)
MEIOSIS (2 phases when being compared to MITOSIS)
encourages genetic diversity
First phase includes the chromosomes CROSS OVER, genetic material EXCHANGES, tetrads of 4 chromatids are FORMED
Next phase: same thing, but we come out with FOUR DAUGHTER CELLS (with diff. sets of chromosomes)
The DAUGHTER CELLS ARE HAPLOIDS (meaning they contain HALF the genetic material of parent)
INTERPHASE - cell prepares for division by REPLACING it's genetic and cytoplasmic material
PROPHASE- chromatin thickens, nuclear mem. disintegrate into chromosomes, pairs of centrioles move to opp. sides of cell. YOU'LL SEE SPINDLE FIBERS.
METAPHASE - SPINDLE FIBERS moves to the CENTER of the cell, chromosomes pair align along the CENTER of spindle structure.
ANAPHASE- pairs of chromosomes aka "sisters" begin to PULL APART...now called DAUGHTER CHROMOSOMES
(you'll start seeing grooves in the cell mem.)
TELOPHASE( SPINDLE DISINTEGRATES, nuclear mem. reforms, and now chromosomes turn into chromatin)
CYTOKINESIS (this is the physical splitting of the cell into TWO CELLS)
"when less specialized cells turn into more specialized cells"
this is controlled by ZYGOTES.
(look at notes for examples)
CELL CYCLE (takes 24 hours)
in MITOSIS = daughter cell is the EXACT REPLICA of parent cell.
in MEIOSIS= daughter cells have different genetic material than parent cells (this only occurs in GAMETES)
MITCHONDRIA FUNCTIONS (4)
cell energy, cell signaling, cell differentiation, cell cycle & cell growth.
has an inner & outer mem(between both this is where chemical reactions occur) ( between both, you'll see cristae, and in the inner mem. you'll see mitochondrial DNA, and ribosomes)
Centrosomea vs Lysosomes
Centrosome which is involved in mitosis.
(made up of centrioles, and this is surrounded by protein)
Centrioles (are cylinder shaped structures near the nucleus involved in cellular division, each cylinder has 9 groups, of 3 microtubules)
digests proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, transports undigested substances to the cell mem, so they can be removed.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (aka ER)
transports system of the cell.
its fused to the nuclear mem, and extends through the CYTOPLASM to CELL MEM.
CYTOKSKELTON vs VESSICLES
VESSICLES are small organelles within the cells, it has many functions including moving material within a cell.
CYTOSKELETON are made up of microtubules which help shape the cells, and made up of proteins, and are part of the cytoskeleton lol.
Vacuoles (animals vs plant)
plants: ONE LARGE
animals: small, many
Cell MEM. - WHAT'S IT MADE OF
made up of proteins(which gives it's shape), and lipids.
consists of a phospholipid bilayer
it has HYDROPHILLIC ends, and HYDROPHOBIC ends.
There is also cholesterol in the mem.
There is also glycolipids.
ONLY SMALL MOLECULES like O2, and H20 can DIFFUSE through the mem......and MOLECULES that are SOLUBLE with phospholipid bilayer.
NUCLEOPLASM vs NUCLEAR PORES vs NUCLEAR ENVELOPE vs NUCLEOUS
NUCLEOPLASM (just the liquid within the nucleus, similar to cytoplasm.)
NUCLEAR PORES (involved in exchange of material between nucleus and cytoplasm)
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE(encloses the structure of the nucleus ; it has inner & outer mem. made up of lipids)
NUCLEOLUS (contained within the nucleus ; has the protein...has NO membrane, carries the RNA)
CHROMATIN vs CHROMOSOMES
CHROMATIN : makes up the CHROMOSOME ; it has the DNA & protein.
CHROMOSOME: just includes the DNA.
nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, nuclear pores, chromatin, ribosomes.
ALL CELLS HAVE WHAT?
DNA & RNA
nucleic acids, cytoplasm, cell mem.
Circulatory System includes what 3 things?
Circulatory System (can either be OPEN or CLOSED)
being closed meaning that the heart and the blood vessels are CONTINUALLY CONNECTED.
(the flow of bed in the capillary beds aka the smallest tubules is usually SLOW)
Flow of blood goes from larger tubules to smaller tubules ; this rate slows down.
Some functions of blood
are to remove waste, carrying raw materials to cells, and to STABILIZE PH, and HOST various kinds of infection fighters.
Blood (made up of plasma, platelets, rbc, and wbc)
Platelets are over HALF (the solute ; also plasma has proteins, ions, glucose, amino acids, hormones, and dissolved gases)
RBC form in BONE MARROW.
THEY CAN LIVE FOR TWO MONTHS....but they are constantly being replaced by fresh ones.
WBC (which are included in RBC ; that's where they are hosted)
made up of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
Heart (made up of CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE)
the heart also has it's own circulatory system. and its own coronary arteries.
We have ATRIAL CONTRACTION ; fills the ventricles
We have VENTRICLE CONTRACTION ; empties them
(this process is called cardiac cycle)
Cardiac muscles (these muscles are "self exciting" meaning that there is NO EXTERNAL STIMULI)
a complex electrical system controls the heartbeat, as cardiac muscles cells produce & conduct electrical signals.....
Cardiac cycle is made up of (diastole & systole)
(when mentioning diastole ; it's basically like the RIGHT SIDE OF THE HEART WHEN ITS HANDLING DEOXYGENATED BLOOD........when you're talking about systole, the first phase occurs when the TRICUPSID VALVE CLOSES to initiate blood to go through the PULMONARY VALVE.
So the SA node aka " the pacemaker of the heart" comes in during DIASTOLE and SYSTOLE portions....
The SA node is the one that generates those electrical signals (which are carried by PURKINJE FIBERS)
So during DIASTOLE : the SA NODE (which is located in the right atrium) generates those electrical signals, and stimulates to contract and fill the right ventricle with blood...THIS IMPULSE is transmitted to the right ventricle through the AV NODE (aka atrioventrcular node, signalling the right ventricle to contract and now we GO TO -------->
So, during SYSTOLE: the SA NODE is now triggering the the mitral valve to open...and the blood fills the left VENTRICLE.
atrioventricular valve is aka
the tricupsid valve
Circulatory Systems (3 types, which are systemic, pulmonary, and coronary)
Coronary basically is the flow of blood to the hearts.
Pulmonary is the flow of blood bw heart and lungs.
Systemic is the flow of blood to ENTIRE BODY.
During systemic, the blood exits the left ventricle through the AORTA, branching off to carotid arteries, sublclavin arteries, common illac arteries, and the renal arteries.....
( we also have portal circulation which is the flow of blood to the digestive system to liver)
(we also have renal circulation which is the flow of blood from the heart and the kidneys)
Blood Pressure is the fluid pressure generated by the cardiac cycle.....
We have arterial blood pressure // transporting blood (oxygen poor) into the LUNGS , and oxygen rich blood to the body tissues...
(arteries ---- branch into arterioles)
capillary beds are diffusion sites for exchange bw blood, and interstital fluid. (thinnest wall, made of endothelial tissue.
(capillaries ---- merge into venues ----merge into veins ; which are thin, and function as blood volume reserves)
Lymphatic System functions (lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, and lymph ducts)
RETURN excess tissue fluid to the BLOODSTREAM
return protein from the capillaires
disposal of debris, and waste, and the transport of fats from the digestive system.
Spleen (apart of the lymphatic system)
is to filter unwanted materials from the BLOOD.
and to help fight infections....
made up of lymphoid tissue....
blood vessels are connected to the spleen by splenic sinuses ; which are modified capillaries.
These peritoneal ligament support the spleen:
* gastrolineal ligament ; connecting the stomach to spleen
* lieonrenal ligament ; connecting the kidney to the spleen
middle section of the *phrenjicocolic ligament ; connecting the left colic flexure to the thoracic diaphragm
GI Tract main 4 things that it does
Movement (ex: smooth muscle moving the food by peristalsis, contracting and relaxing to move nutrients along)
Absorption (ex: passage of nutrients through plasma membranes into the blood or lymph and then to the body)
THE LIVER IS THE LARGEST SOLID ORGAN OF THE BODY (wow, i didn't know that....lol)
composed of FOUR LOBES (right, left, quadrate, and caudate)
composed of FIVE LIGAMENTS which help the liver to connect to the diaphragm and the abdominal walls....(falciform ; which forms a membrane-like-barrier bw right & left lobes.., coronary, right & left triangular, and round ligaments)
liver processes all of the BLOOD that goes through the digestive system.....nutrient rich blood is supplied to the liver by the
HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN
(this vein is the one that gives the LIVER THAT FRESH BLOOD, that it needs to process for the digestive system, WOW)
HEPATIC ARTERY supplies the oxygen rich blood ------> to the HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN....
now that the blood has reached the liver by the HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN, the blood leaves the liver after is processed through the regular HEPATIC VEINS.....
Okay so how does this blood enter the LIVER?
This blood enters through LOBULES ; these are made up of layers of liver cells......
Then the blood flows through the sinusoids. (aka small channels)
producing bile, cholesterol, blood plasma proteins
PROCESSING BLOOD, and converting AMMONIA to UREA (a waste product excreted in urine)
regulating blood clotting...
controlling infections ; by boosting immune factors / and removing bacteria.
Within the SMALL INTESTINE (this is where the nutrients are absorbed....and we have enzymes that from liver, stomach, pancreas that are transported to SMALL INTESTINE....to help with digestion)
We have BILE which is secreted from the LIVER. (to help with breaking down fats ; aiding in DIGESTION
And is stored in the gall bladder....
SMALL INTESTINE aka the "main absorption organ of the digestive tract"
so the SMALL INTESTINE is lined with VILLI (which are very tiny, and they help increase the surface area when it comes to interacting with CHIME.
So CHIME is basically from undigested foods, (it's like semi-liquid mass)
and then we also have MICROVILLI , and we can find these at the surface of VILLI , and these are epithelial cells.
They also help INCREASE the SURFACE AREA......
LARGE INTESTINE aka the COLON
this intestine works with waste materials.
it ascends on the RIGHT side of the abdominal cavity, cuts transversely to the left side, descending, and ATTACHING TO THE RECTUM.
COLON- WASTE - RECTUM - MUSCLE SPHCNINTER - ANUS
so when the rectum gets distended, the nervous system gets this trigger to release this waste from the RECTUM....
we have something called a "MUSCLE SPHINCTER" at the end of the ANUS....and that's what's releasing the wast.
Pancreas (made up of endocrine tissue, and exocrine tissue)
endocrine tissues ; secreting hormones like insulin into the bloodstream (we get blood to the pancreas by the splenic artery, gastroduodenal artery, and the superior mesentric artery)
exocrine tissue ; secreting digestive enzymes to the small intestine
....so exocrine functions are CONTROLLED by hormones....when things are secreted by the exocrine tissue, these secretions FLOW through the pancreas into the PANCREATIC DUCT aka Wirsung's DUCT)...delivering it to the DUODENUEM.
Precursor's - Enzymes - Of the Pancreas - Exocrine Tissue
So these secretions from exocrine tissue are enzymes, the precursor of the enzyme aka ZYMOGENS are produced by groups of exocrine cells aka acini.
.....So the acini gets converted in the GUT, to lipase, and amylase......once they enter the small intestine
(we also see the pancreatic secreting large amounts of NA bicarbonate to neutralize the stomach acid)
Action Potential aka " electrical signal"
messages with neurons are sent across the PLASMA MEMBRANE of the neurons.....
We also have something called "CHEMICAL SYNAPSE"
- during this process, it's basically the point of contact, between neurons communicating with each other.....
3 types of NEURONS ( sensory, motor & interneurons)
Sensory neurons is the when we transmit signals to the CNS from the sensory receptors ; like pain, feeling, sight, smell.
Motor neurons is when those signals are from the CNS to the body ; signaling muscles, or glands to respond.
Interneurons ; are those that are in BETWEEN neurons....so like sensory & motor neurons.......
When we take APART a NEURON, you'll see it's composed of THREE THINGS.
cell body aka soma (which holds the nucleus)
axon(transmits the impulses AWAY from the cell body...it's insulated by oligodendrocytes, myelin sheath with GAPS aka nodes of Ranvier..
dendrites (which receives impulses from sensory receptors, interneurons, and transmits them to the WHOLE BODY)
Dendrites (recieves STMULUS)
---- travels through the axon, and then released through to the AXON TERMINAL-----
CNS (brain, spinal cord ; which is encased in the VETERBRAE ; which protects it and keeps it SAFE)
Brain has the HINDBRAIN, FOREBRAIN, & MIDBRAIN.
We also know there is a right/left hemispheres of the brain.....
And we have 4 LOBES when it comes towards the brain: temporal, occipital, parietal, frontal
hindbrain includes : medulla(aka medulla oblongata), cerebellum, pons.
forebrain includes: cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus
midbrain: integrates the sensory signals, and than works with the responses to these signals.
FRONTAL lobe: towards the front of the brain, short term and working memory // info processing, decision making, judgement.
PARITEAL lobe: back of the brain, and top of the head, sensory input as well as spatial positioning of the body.
OCCIPITAL lobe: back of the HEAD, and above brain stem ; for visual input, processing, output.
TEMPORAL lobe: found on left & right side of the brain......auditory, processing & output.
CEREBELLUM functioning // remember it's located in the hindbrain.
for storing memories...."classical conditioning"
and like reflexes.....testing for those reflexes..."puff of air in eye, you should blink..."
BRAIN STEM // back aka posterior of the brain.... has three parts: medulla, pons, and midbrain
obviously know any information that needs to get to the brain to the body is travelled down the brainstem, and vice versa......
But when it comes time to talk about like "Reflex arc" concept, that information skips the brain stem, and goes straight to spinal cord.....
Midbrain vs Medulla vs Pons (which all three are what makes up a brainstem)
midbrain - pons - medulla
midbrain ; lies above pons, it includes a tectum, tegmentum, & ventral tegmentum....."HEARING & VISUAL"
pons - lies above medulla, it's between midbrain & medulla....we see the info being sent ACROSS the PONS from the cerebrum to the medulla to the cerebellum.....
medulla oblongata - is beneath the midbrain , and pons, BOTTOM....it's the piece of the brain stem that CONNECTS the SPINAL CORD TO THE BRAIN....it's very very IMPORTANT when we talk about ANS, circulatory & respiratory systems.
PNS which includes the nerves and ganglia throughout the BODY.... includes sympathetic nerves, & parasympathetic nerves
sympathetic nerves...."flight or fight response"
parasympathetic nerves...control basic body functions.
ANS - maintaining homeostasis of glands, organs, BV, etc......we THANK the HYPOTHALAMUS for all of this
hypothalamus (located above the MIDBRAIN)
it controls ANS through the brainstem...which regulates body temp, breathing rate, heart rate, blood pH.
ANS (theres 2 divisons which incude SNS & PNS)
SNS: controls the body's reaction to ectreme stressfull....you'll see your pupils dilating, increase of heart rate....
PNS: counteracts effects of SNS, decreasing heart rate, and constrciting your pupils.
Somatic Nervous System & Reflex Arc
SNS (controlling five senses, and voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.)
Reflex Arc (nerve pathway that bypasses the brain, controlled by the SPINAL CORD)
SNS ; you'll see EFFERENT nerves aka motor (BRINGING SIGNALS from the CNS to the sensory organs, and muscles.
You'll see AFFERENT nerves aka sensory (BRINGING SIGNALS from the sensory organs and the muscles to the CNS)
MUSCLE TISSUE ( only 3 types)
Skeletal muscle tissue aka striated muscle.
Smooth muscles aka visceral tissue
Cardiac muscle tissue.
(all muscles have the right to EXCIBALITY ; electric gradient which can reverse when stimulated......CONTRACTION ; contract or shorten...........ELONGATE ; they can elongate or relax.
Skeletal muscle tissue - voluntary, and is striated, it's composed of muscle fibers bounded together in parallel bundles.....
Smooth muscle tissue - aka visceral tissue - these muscle tissues lines internal organs, they are found in the walls of them, they are INVOLUNTARY, also found in sphincters, and valves.
Cardiac muscle tissues - involuntary, are striated like skeletal muscle tissue, and only found in the HEART.
MUSCLE FIBERS - SKELETAL MUSCLES
(theres a MILLON MUSCLE FIBERS and then each muscle fiber has a BUNDLE OF MYOFIBRILS ; made up of sarcomeres, which are multiple repeating contractile units)
muscle fiber - bundle of myofibrils - repeating contractile units aka sarcomeres
Within the MYOFIBRILS you'll see 2 things (thick filament & thin filament)
Thick - made up of the protein myosin
Thin - made up of the protein actin
When the thick & thin overlap (you'll see dark bands; AKA THE STRIATIONS)
When the thin overlaps with thin (you'll see lighter bands)
When we have thin sliding over thick, this shortens the sarcomere....meaning skeletal muscle attraction is occurring....
so when an electrical signal (action potential) touches a muscle fiber.... CALCIUM IONS are RELEASED......these ions BIND to MYOSIN & ACTIN (and that's when you'll see binding between myosin heads of the thick filaments to the actin molecules of the thin filaments.
External structure of Male: penis, scrotum, & testes.
Internal structure of Male: vans deferens, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland & bulbourethral gland.
EXTERNAL : The penis carries the URETHRA.....and the SCROTUM is a flap of skin that holds the TESTES(keeping at a good temp).......the TESTES are the ones that produce sperm & testosterone & spermogeneisis...
INTERNAL: The epididymis is the one that STORES the SPERM that the testes produce......THIS SPERM MOVES AND TRAVELS through the vans deferens to the ejaculatory duct.....
FLUIDS - MALE - INTERNAL
THE SEMINAL VESICLES secrete alkaline fluids in the ejaculatory duct...
Prostate gland is white milky fluid, proteins, enzymes, it's apart with SPERM.
The bulbourethral aka COWPERS secretes fluid into the urethra to neutralize the acidity there in the urethra.
HORMONES - (LH & FSH)
LH aka lutenizing hormone stimulates testereone (male sex characteristics.
FSH aka follicle stimulating hormone stimulates spermogeneisis.
FEMALE (main function: produce ova (oocytes, or egg cells) and then transfer to fallopian tubes.
EXTERNAL includes: labia minor, labia major, Bartholins glands & clitoritis
INTERNAL includes: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina
EXTERNAL functions: the labia major/minor are the ones that are PROTECTING the vagina.....The Bartholins glands are secreting a fluid, it's lubricating fluid......And the Clitoritis is for erectile tissue...sensual pleasure.
INTERNAL FUNCTIONS: The ovaries are the ones that produce this OVA, and also secrete ESTROGEN & prostergone.....NOW the Fallopian tube is the one that carries the OVA, or now the mature egg to the UTERUS....(fertilization also begins in the fallopian tube ; if the egg does end up getting fertilized it goes to the UTERUS, and implants into the uterine wall.......stays till BIRTH...)
VAGINA - muscular tube that extends from the cervix of the uterus to the outside of the body.....receives the semen & sperm from MALE.
Integumentary System: skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands & sweat glands (secretions for both....oil aka sebum & sweat)
protection, secretion, communication.
Communication - with sensory receptors being all over the skin, it can alert the CNS with pain, touch, pressure, and temp....
and than also there's VITAMIN D that can be absorbed into the skin...also other stuff can be absorbed into the skin.......like specific medications.
SKIN - TEMP HOMEOSTATSIS
thermoregulation is a concept with the help of SWEAT GLANDS....
Temperature of our body is regulated by THREE THINGS
1.control center ; hypothalamus
2.effector ; blood vessels, SWEAT GLANDS, muscles (shivering)
3. receptors ; those sensory cells located in the dermis of the skin.
we also see VASODILATION of the blood vessels...initiating shivering, so you'll see at the surface of the skin those blood vessels getting bigger releasing heat into the environment to lower body TEMP.....
SEBACOUS GLANDS vs SWEAT GLANDS
(both are exocrine glands, secreting substances into ducts...to the surface of the skin)
SEBACOUS GLANDS: are HOLOCRINE glands.....secreting sebum, they are also connected to hair follicles.
SWEAT GLANDS: can be eccrine glands or apocrine glands. Involved with thermoregulation
ECCRINE GLANDS vs APOCRINE GLANDS
ECCRINE glands // located throughout the body, mainly forehead, neck, back, so these glands SECRETE a salty solution full of electrolytes, water, NACL, potassium & bicarbonate, glucose, antimicrobial peptides.
APOCRINE glands// located in the soles of the feet, armpits, groin and palms....secreting during stress, or anxiety... IT's an oily solution rather than being slaty like eccrine glands, it has fatty acids, and triglycerides, and proteins......
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - obviously with hormones!!!
(works closely w/ nervous system creating "neuroendocrine control center".....with the hypothalamus & the pituitary gland)
We have (8) major HORMONES (go to page 94 for description of each:
PANCREAS: So within the pancreas it secretes two hormones which are INSULIN, and GLUCAGON...
We have the "isle of Langerhans" ; which is made up of the insulin-producing beta cells and glucagon-releasing alpha cells.......
INSULIN:(OUR BODY USES INSULIN to control carbohydrate metabolism.....by lowering the amount of sugar in the blood..........insulin can also control fat metabolism, by changing the livers ability to releasing stored fat.....)
GLUCAGON: opposite of insulin(.......it can also control carbohydrate metabolism ; by INCREASING blood sugar levels....)
(so basically glucagon & insulin are balanced to maintain the optimum level of blood sugar all day)
THYROID & PARATHYROID:
THYROID: So the thyroid basically maintains/regulates METABOLISM. it secretes THYROXINE, TRIIODOTHYRONINE, (both helping with metabolism) AND CALCITONIN.(decreasing blood calcium by storing it in the bone tissues.....) also pituitary gland secretes TSH and then stimulates the thyroid gland to do its job.
PARATHYROID: is the one that secretes the parathyroid hormone...this increases blood calcium by moving OUT OF THE BONES into the BLOOD.
URINARY SYSTEM (urinary duct, bladder, & KIDNEYS)
KIDNEYS has 3 portions
renal medulla-inner layer
renal cortex- outer layer
renal pelvis - innermost portion
So the renal cortex ----- made up of NEPHRONS (which are like mini individual FILTERS of the KIDNEY)
----- Within the NEPHRONS we'll see a glomerulus ; which is just a cluster of capillaries....(surrounded by "Bowmans capsule).......and then the this ALL LEADS to A TUBULE
------ so the kidneys receive blood from renal arteries, which branch off the aorta.......
These renal arteries turn into arterioles, and then into the GLOMERULUS....it gets FILTERED THERE.......and then enters the PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULES ; this is where water, glucose, ions, and organic molecules are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.........
And then we look at the DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE, this is where drugs, and urea are removed from the blood......."and the pH of the blood can be adjusted in this tubule by the SECRETION of the hydrogen ions.
The immune system includes the lymphatic system (lymph, lymph capillaries, lymph nodes, lymph vessels...)
also includes red bone marrow, leukocytes aka WBC's.
Tissue fluids enter the lymph capillaries, and then COMBINE making lymph nodes (in neck, groin, armpits ; these lymph nodes are along the lymph vessels, and they filter the lymph of pathogens and other matter.)
Lymphatic tissue ; tonsils, adenoids, thymus, spleen, peyers patches.
Thymus// maturation chamber for the immature T cells that are formed in the bone marrow.....
Spleen // cleaning the blood of dead cells & pathogens.
Peyer's patches // found in small intestine, protect the digestive system from pathogens.
these are the main wbc that are like the baddies of the immune system:
macrophages ; phagocytes that are alerting T cells of antigens
t lymphocytes: DIRECTLY attack cells infected with a virus, and bacteria
b lymphocytes: target specific bacteria for destruction
antibody - mediated // when the response is to an antigen
cell-mediated // when the response is to an already infected cell.
When it comes to the WBC we have MONOCYTES (macrophages, and dendritic cells)
GRANULOCYTES (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils)
and then we have T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and natural killer cells.
MACROPHAGES s are found in LYMPH.....and they are LONG LIVED PHAGOCYTES.
DENDRITIC cells are the type of cells that present antigens to T cells. ** "alerter to T"
NEUTROPHILS are our first responders, and they are short living phagocytes.
BASOPHILS alert the body of invasion
alerter to body
.....relase HISTAMINE and CAUSE INFLAMMATION
EOSINOPHIL are large, long living phagocytes that defend against multicellular invaders. (AGAINST ALLERGIC REACTIONS AND THEY KILL......ASTHMA ;
LYMPHOCYTE - immune response
MONOCYTE - type of phagocyte it eats up bacteria, viruses.....
T lymphocytes : helper t cells (help the body fight these infections by producing antibodies, and chemicals...), memory cells, killer t cells, and suppressor cells // suppress other Tcells when the battle is over.
B lymphocytes produce ANTIBODIES.
B lymphocytes aka Bcells can differentiate into plasma cells, ad memory cells.
// plasma cells produce antibodies, and then these antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens, and mark them for destruction by other phagocytes....
ACTIVE& PASSIVE IMMUNITY
so at BIRTH --- we get INNATE IMUUNE SYSTEM --- this just protects us from pathogens.
so when we get an immunization or encounter an infection, so that means we reacted to the pathogen --- we get ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM
(active and passive immunities can be acquired naturally or artificially)
naturally acquired active immunity vs artificially acquired active immunity: SO BASICALLY NATURALLY you'll be exposed and build immunity to this pathogen WITHOUT a vaccine......and SO BASICALLY ARTIFICALLY you'll be exposed to this pathogen WITH a vaccine.
naturally acquired passive immunity vs artifically acquired passive immunity:
SO NATURALLY you'll be getting it during pregnancy from your mother.....antibodies from your mothers bloodstream to the fetus bloodstream.....and it can come from your mothers breastmilk......and then ARTIFICALLY you'l get an IMMUNIZATION, this will be underneath EMERGENCY and it will be SHORT LIVED PROTECTION....getting it from another animal or person.
skeletal system divided into 2 sections which is the (80)AXIAL skeleton (skull, sternum, ribs, and veterbral column) and the (126) APPENDICULAR skeleton (bones of the arms, feet, hands, legs, hips, and shoulders.
------- we have 206 bones in our body-------
VETERBAL COLUMN (in the axial)
aka the SPINE has 33 vertebrae...these are known as cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
RIB CAGE (in the axial)
has 12 paired ribs, and 2 pairs of FLOATING RIBS.
STERNUM (in the axial)
has manubrium, corpus sterni, xiphoid.
has the cranium, and the facial bone----ossicles in the middle ear--------hyoid bone is the attachment for tongue muscles.
SO AS YOU CAN SEE the AXIAL SKELETON protects the HEART, LUNGS, BRAIN.
Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones)
we separate this in 3 for easier learning it's PECTORAL GIRDLE
// with pectoral girdle ; you'll see scapulae aka shoulders, and clavicles aka collarbones...
// with pelvic girdle ; you'll see two pelvic(hip) bones which attach to the sacrum...
// with appendages (we have upper, and lower)
upper(arms): humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges.
lower(legs): femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges.
JOINTS (this is how we provide movement)
we have hinge, ball/and socket, pivot, ellipsoid, gliding, saddle.....
(each muscle is attached to TWO BONES: the origin which is has no movement, and the insertion, which is where contraction and relaxation of the muscle occurs...)
(Remember in the skeletal system, we have RED MARROW, in here RBC are produced)
With JOINTS CONCEPT:
SYNOVIAL JOINT // most common, freely moveable....in shoulders, knees
CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS // fill the spaces in our veterbrae, and fill the spaces between some bones....these joints RESTRICT movement
FIBROUS JOINTS // have fibrous tissue connecting bones, and no cavity is present....
COMPACT BONE & SPONGY BONE (types of connective BONE TISSUE).....only two types.....
compact aka cortical (tightly packed cells, STRONG, DENSE, RIGID......// you'll see "HAVERSIAN CANALS which just run vertically throughout the compact bone, and they are surrounded by LAMELLAE, and you'll see spaces between the LAMELLAE called lacunae.....
"we call this the HAVERSIAN SYSTEM"
(this system holds our calcium & phosphate for the blood....IN THE COMPACT BONE it's very thin. that's why it's SMOOTH and WHITE)
SPONGY aka cancellous bone (made up of trabecular.....it's a network of girders with open spaces filled with RED BONE MARROW.)
SPONGY bone is lightweight, and porous, this reduces the bones overall weight.....
LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Macromolecules (4 types)
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins.
Macromolecule use these building blocks in their reactions:
fatty acids (glycerol)
endothermic reactions absorb heat, while exothermic reactions release heat.
CARBOHYDRATES vs LIPIDS
CARBOHYDRATES are made up of CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN. (aka polysaccharides)
Carbohydrates can be easily broken down into glucose......and they ARE THE PRIMARY SOURCE WHEN IT COMES TO ENERGY.
SUGAR: simple sugar can be grouped into monosaccharides(fructose, glucose, galactose)......monosaccharides have one monomer....monomers can be repeating and turn into polymers(carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids)
LIPIDS: lipids are hydrophobic...meaning they cannot bond with water well.....they have C-H bonds, so LIPIDS are there to store energy, and structural functions.....ex: fats, fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, waxes....
Fats: made up of long chains of fatty acids....
Fatty acids: chains with reduced carbonate one end, and a carboxylic acid group on the other end.
Phospholipids: lipids that have a phosphate group instead of a fatty acid
Glycerides: fats, and oils, they are formed from acids and glycerol (type of alcohol)
PROTEINS (they are macromolecules that are formed from amino acids).......aka POLYPEPTIDES........they are together with peptides because of "condensation reactions" (which is the loss of water when 2 molecules are joined together)
Hydrolysis reaction is diff.....(this reaction adds water..)
PEPTIDE // is a compound of two or more amino acids.
AMINO ACIDS// formed from the partial hydrolysis of protein, forming an amide bond......
This "partial hydrolysis" involves the amine group and a carboxylic acid.)
ENZYMES / they are just PROTEINS with strong CATALYTIC POWER.
they make reactions happen faster, and more OFTEN.
Each enzyme focuses on the REACTANTS aka SUBSTRATES.
"key - and - lock" concept with enzymes// only a certain enzyme only fits with certain substrates......
Enzymes can be used again, and again providing a constant source of ENERGY ACCELERANTS FOR CELLS.......increase in the number and rate of reactions in cells when ENZYMES are BEING USED towards our SUBSTRATES
NUCLEIC ACIDS // they are just macromolecules made up of nucleotides.......
EX: Hydrolysis is a reaction in which water breaks into hydrogen cations, and hydroxide anions.....SO this part of the process by which nucleic acids are broken down by enzymes to produce shorter strings of RNA & DNA........(oligonucleotides, which are just broken down into smaller sugar nitrogenous units called nucleosides)
Another example: RNA & DNA ; are formed from nucleotides and they are joined by phosphodiester bonds.....
So we have nucleic acids that store info, and energy, and they are catalysts.....RNA catalyzes the transfer of DNA genetic info into protein coded info...
(ATP is a RNA nucleotide)
NUCLEOTIDES // are used to form nucleic acids, and they are made up a FIVE CARBON SUGAR, like RIBOSE or DEOXYRORIBOSE, a nitrogenous base, and one or more phosphates..........
DNA: (in the nucleus, and some in the mitochondria)
So genes are made up of DNA, and genes are found in chromosomes......
We know that DNA replicates to pass on genetic info.
DNA is a DOUBLE HELIX (curved, it's like a spiral staircase, right-handed)
DOUBLE HELIX, like a twisted ladder lowkey.......made up of NUCLEOTIDES....and we know what nucleotides are made up of ; fiver - carbon sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base......
The backbone is made up of sugar and phosphate, and the bases are attached with hydrogen, so they can easily be dismantled during replication......
So with the nitrogenous bases we ONLY HAVE FOUR
Adenine - Thymine
Cytosine - Guanine
PURINES & PYRIMIDINES:
(the 5 bases in RNA and DNA can be categorized as purine or pyrimidine.)
PYRIMIDINES includes uracil, thymine, cytosine. ( these are six-sided, and have a single ring shape)
PURINES includes adenine and guanine. ( these are 2 attached rings...one ring has 5 sides, and the other has 6)
So when any of these are combined with SUGAR, they become nucleosides.........If ending in "OSINE" then they are formed with PURINE BASES.
If ending with "IDINE" then they are formed with PYRIMIDINES.
(and bases are the most basic components....then nucleosides.....then nucleotides.....then nucleic acids.....then DNA or RNA)
groups of THREE nucleotides on mRNA.
It's a CODE for a single amino acid. ( WE HAVE 64 CODONS but only 20 AMINO ACIDS)
So we can have diff. combinations, or triplets....like "AAA, or like UCU"
We have "START AND STOP CODONS"
(like "AUG" aka METHIONINE is a START CODON, so we start counting from three from there......and "UAA, UGA, UAG" are known as STOP CODONS"
DNA REPLICATION: (so we know that the pairs of chromosomes are tightly wounded, when DNA rep. occurs, we start to see it UNWIND)
This process is controlled by ENZYMES.
The enzyme HELICASE starts to deform the HYDROGEN BONDS.
We start with the bond be A and T, because there is only 2 hydrogen bonds......THIS IS ALSO CALLED the ORIGIN OR REPLICATION, because this is where the replication is first starting.
The C-G has three bonds........
We call the portion of the DNA, that is unwound to be replicated the REPLICATION FORK.
Now, each strand will be transcribed by an mRNA.
RNA (like a helper to DNA....we have rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA)
viruses use RNA to carry their genetic material to DNA.
rRNA has changed over time. (found in ribosomes)
mRNA carries a strand of DNA, and moves it from the nucleus to the cytoplasm......
And then we have transcription, and translation.
TRANSCRIPTION is when we have DNA using RNA. The DNA unwinds itself, and serves as a template while RNA is being assembled (????? don't understand ; google this concept)
TRANSLATION is when ribosomes use transcribed RNA to put together the needed protein... (RNA ---> PROTEIN ?.)
tRNA is a molecule that helps in the translation process, it's found in the cytoplasm.
difference bw RNA & DNA:
RNA has a RIBOSE SUGAR
DNA has a DEOYRIBOSE SUGAR.
RNA nitrogenous bases are A, G, C, U.
(uracil is only in RNA.)
DNA nitrogenous bases are A, G, C, T.
(thymine is only in DNA.)
RNA only has one backbone vs DNA having two.
(meaning like strands....remember that DNA is double stranded....RNA is NOT.)
Also RNA carries out anything DNA does. it aids in genetic expression, replication, and transportation.
GENE CONCEPTS !!
MENDEL'S LAWS ( we have TWO LAWS ; the law of segregation vs the law of independent clauses)
With the law of segregation we have that 2 alleles, and that HALF of the TOTAL number of alleles are contributed by each PARENT ORGANISM.
With the law of independent, we have that traits are passed randomly, not influenced by any other traits.
PUNNET SQUARES represent alleles, and how they combine from contributing genes to form PHENOTYPES.....
Dominant one is shown in a PUNNET SQUARE, when two diff. alleles are present in a PAIR.
GENES/ GENOTYPE/ PHENOTYPE / ALLELE
GENE: is a portion of a DNA, that identifies how traits are expressed, and passed on.....
All genes form GENOTYPES ; we also have recessive genes that are included in GENOTYPES.
PHENOTYPES just show the PHYSICAL TRAIT, and physical, visual manifestations of genes.........
We have something called ALLELES which is just a variation of a gene......(aka a TRAIT) like having blue, green, grey eyes.
DOMINANT vs RECESSIVE
Dominant with bigger LETTER. Recessive with SMALLER LETTER.......
Dominant trait needs ONE GENE of a GENE PAIR to be expressed to become a PHENOTYPE.
Recessive traits needs BOTH GENES in order to be SHOWN.....
MONOHYRBRID vs HYBRID CROSSES (pg 106-107)
So we have something called GENETIC CROSSES // basically represented with a PUNNET SQUARE....and, it shows all the possible combos for ALLELES.
A MONOHYBRID CROSS // cross involving ONLY TRAIT.
Ratio is 3:1
A DIHYRBID CROSS // cross involving more than ONE TRAIT......more combinations possible.....and the RATIO is
NON- MENDELIAN CONCEPTS
Co-Dominance // expression of BOTH alleles SHOWN (both traits are shown.....ex: ABO human blood typing system)
Incomplete Dominance // when BOTH the DOMINANT and RECESSIVE genes are EXPRESSED....you'll see a PHENOTYPE that is MIXED.
POLYGENIC INHERITANCE // where the environment takes a hand in development.....one gene influences one traits......The traits are influenced by MORE THAN ONE GENE.
MULTITPLE ALLELES // only TWO ALLELES make up a gene, but we have 3 or more that make it......And when we have a gene where's only TWO ALLELES are ONLY POSSIBLE we call this POLYMORPHIC.
ATOMS (all matter is made up of atoms.....an atom has a nucleus, and electrons....and we know that atoms make up MOLECULES.)
Atoms are REALLY REALLY SMALL to the naked eye, and atomic radius is starting from between the nucleus, and then the outermost electron.
If the # of protons, and electrons are not the same we have either a POSITIVE or NEGATIVE charged ION.
But we know that protons, and electrons equal each other, unless they are an ION.
Atomic WEIGHT (which is different than atomic mass ; which is protons and neutrons) but it's aka "RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS"
It's the RATIO of the average mass per atom of a sample to 1/2 of the mass of an atom........
ISOTOPES // the ones that haven't been observed to be "decayed" ....these are considered "STABLE"
(we have 80 elements that have one or more stable isotopes......256 known stable isotopes in TOTAL.)
Radioactive ISOTOPES // these isotopes emit radiation......They have UNSTABLE nuclei, and they undergo spontaneous nuclear reactions.....
ELECTRONS are much SMALLER than the nucleus......and we know that electrons have like "wave-like characteristics"
ELECTRONS are apart of the "LEPTON" family of elementary particles....they tend to occupy the LOWEST energy level they can.....if they can do this, have all of their electrons to have the lowest energy level, its considered STABLE.......
Around the atom, we have 4 levels, that the electrons can be in....so FARTHER away from the NUCLEUS, the MORE energy an electron has......
(the first shell aka K-shell can hold 2.....the second shell aka L-shell can hold 8.....the third shell can hold 16 aka M-shell.......and then the fourth shell aka N-shell can hold 32.)
(we also have sub shells too...)
Polar bonds // covalent type bond where one end is negative, and the other end is positive.....it has a separation of charge.....ex: hydrogen, and water.
IONS.....(negative ion becomes negative once it gains electrons, and a postive ion becomes positive once it loses electrons)....makes sense because electrons are negatively charged, duh!
AND IONIC BONDS // are basically formed bw ions with opp. charges.
(Ionization happens when NEUTRAL PARTICLES become ionized into charged particles....."catIONS, and anIONS"
types of bonding:
IONIC BONDING // atoms gaining/losing ELECTRONS, the bond is a relationship between two opp. charged ions.
COVALENT BOND: atoms that SHARE electrons.......if they are shared equally they are called non-polar bonds....and if they are shared unequally they are a polar bond........covalent bonding occurs MORE in atoms with similar electronegativites, so with that being sad, NONMETALS are MORE likely to make these type of bonds vs metals, because its more difficult to liberate an electron as a nonmetal...
(so electron sharing takes place when ONE species encounter another species with similar electronegativity.)
HYDROGEN BOND:..........the atom of a molecule interacts with a HYDROGEN ATOM in the same area.
ELECTRONEGATIVITY terms (so easy compared to chem 111)
so if the electroneg. has one atom that exerts slightly more force in the bond than the other atom it's called a DIPOLE.
if both atoms are small, when looking at the electroneg. differences it's a POLAR COVALENT BOND.
if the difference is large, when looking at the electroneg. bw the atoms, it's called a PURE NONPOLAR COVALENT BOND.
smallest unit of an element is an ATOM.
(we know that elements CANNOT be broken down)
having two or more elements this is called a COMPOUND.......ELEMENT IS THE MOST BASIC TYPE OF MATTER...
smallest independent unit of an element or compound is a MOLECULE...
we have 17 nonmetals.
we have 8 metalloids.
(PERIODIC TABLE.....created by Dimitrii mendleeve.)
TRENDS - PERIODIC TABLE
(we have metals(lithium, sodium, that FIRST GROUP))
(we have have alkaline earth metals(that SECOND GROUP)
Within each GROUP they share the same configuration of electrons.....
we have something call PERIODICITY // we can predict elements reactivity, but we know on the right side of the table, we have a fuller complement of electrons in their outer levels, MEANING THEY WILL BE LESS REACTIVE.....they will have a LOW REACTIVITY......
Reading down a group, each OUTER ELECTRON increases, as we move downward...(what's going on here is that each atoms outer electrons are less tightly bound to the nucleus, and this increases their electronegativity.....also the principal energy level increases when you move DOWNWARD
Principal energy level : shield the outer energy levels from nuclear attraction, allowing the valence electrons to react.
PROPERTIES - intensive vs extensive
INTENSIVE (DON't depend on the amount of matter or like amount of the substance...so the intensive properties don't change, if the sample size is like increased or decreased........) Ex: color, hardness, melting point, boiling point, density.
EXTENSIVE ( DO depend of the amount of matter or quantity of the sample......so these type of properties do change if the sample is decreased or increased....Ex: volume, mass, weight, energy, entropy, # of moles, electrical charge)
Specific gravity // measure of the ratio of a substances density compared to the density of water......
acetchoyline - MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS - it's a stimulant
DOPAMINE - rewards, motivated behavior, mediated.
SEROTONIN - mellow happiness,
GABA- reduce the binding of neurons (or like the attachment)
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