World History: Chapter 10
Terms in this set (22)
Who saved as middlemen in trade between Europe and the Orient?
What were the primary centers of trade on the local level in Europe? What were the centers of trade for large-scale international trade?
the markets; the fairs
Where did we get our word for bank?
from the Italian banca, which means "bench," referring to a moneychanger's table
What is the term for charging interest for the use of lent money? What institution condemned this practice during the Middle Ages?
usury; the medieval or Roman church
What factors contributed to the growth of towns in medieval Europe?
renewed trade, better farming methods, and a larger European population
List four basic freedoms shared by most townspeople.
free status (freeman); exemption from manorial obligations; privilege of administering their own justice; right to buy and sell freely in town markets
What was the primary function of a guild?
to regulate the business activity of a given town
What were the three classes of members of craft guilds?
apprentice, journeyman, and master
What new social class arose with the rise of towns in the eleventh and twelfth centuries? What were the chief occupation of the people of this class?
the middle class; merchants, bankers, craftsmen, and skilled laborers
List three factors that aided a revival of learning during the twelfth century.
improved political and economic conditions; exposure to Byzantine and Arab cultures; increased need for education due to the expanded function of government
What were two of the earliest universities begun in Europe? How did they differ?
Bologna and Paris; Bologna was organized and supervised by student guilds and was a leading center for the study of law. Paris was supervised by teachers, not students, and became a leading center for the study of liberal arts and theology.
What is the name of the new intellectual movement characterized by a renewed interest in theology and philosophy? What did the philosophers and theologians of this movement try to harmonize?
Scholasticism; the teachings of the church and the writings of Greek philosophers (i.e., faith and reason)
What clouded the work of medieval science?
magic and superstition
Who were the two greatest writers of the late Middle Ages? Identify each man's native country an the title of his most important work.
Dante -- Italy -- Divine Comedy; Geoffrey Chaucer -- England -- The Canterbury Tales
What two nations fought during the Hundred Years' War? What were the dates for this war?
England and France; 1337-1453
Which side won the most of the battles of this war? What side won the war?
What people did the Spanish and Portuguese seek to drive out of the Iberian Peninsula? What was this effort called?
the Spanish Muslims (or Moors); the Reconquista
What was the German constitution called? What assembly did it establish?
the Golden Bull; the Diet
Following the collapse of the Hohenstaufen house, what family came to occupy the throne of the Holy Roman Empire and ruled it until after World War I?
the Hapsburg family
Who issued the papal bull Unam Sanctam? What did it assert?
Boniface VIII; that obedience to the pope is necessary for salvation
To what city was the papacy "exiled"? What is this period called?
Avignon, France; the "Babylonian Captivity of the Church"
What church council finally settled the Great Schism?
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